Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 390, Issue 7, pp 1873–1879

Analysis of ancient Greco–Roman cosmetic materials using laser desorption ionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

  • Elsa Van Elslande
  • Vincent Guérineau
  • Vincent Thirioux
  • Ghislaine Richard
  • Pascale Richardin
  • Olivier Laprévote
  • Georges Hussler
  • Philippe Walter
Original Paper

Abstract

Microsamples of pink cosmetic powders from the Greco–Roman period were analyzed using two complementary analytical approaches for identification of the colouring agents (lake pigments originally manufactured from madder plants with an inert binder, usually a metallic salt) present in the samples. The first technique was a methanolic acidic extraction of the archaeological samples with an additional ethyl acetate extraction of the anthraquinone-type colouring agents which were identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization with high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–HRMS), and the second was direct analysis of a microsample by laser desorption ionization–mass spectrometry (LDI–MS). The latter technique is well suited when the quantity of samples is very low. This soft ionization technique enables the detection of very small quantities of compounds using the combination of positive and negative-ion modes. It was also successfully applied for the direct analysis of some laboratory-made reference compounds. However, the presence of lead in one of these ancient samples induced a spectral suppression phenomenon. In this case and conditional on a sufficient quantity of available sample, the former method is better adapted for the characterization of these anthraquinone-type molecules. This study also confirmed that purpurin, munjistin, and pseudopurpurin are the principal colouring agents present in these ancient cosmetic powders constituted from madder plants.

Keywords

Laser desorption ionization (LDI) Mass spectrometry LDI–MS Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry LC–ESI–HRMS Madder plants Greco–Roman cosmetics Anthraquinones 

References

  1. 1.
    Grillet B (1975) Les femmes et les fards dans l’antiquité grecque. CNRS, LyonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dubourdieu A, Lemirre E (2002) Corps Romains. Jerôme Millon, GrenobleGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guineau B, Fauduet I, Biraben JM (1995) Germania 2:369–401Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mazzocchin GA, Agnoli F (2003) Anal Chim Acta 475:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wim H, Van Lith S (2006) BABesch 81:185–198Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fitzhugh EW (1997) Artists’ pigments: a handbook of their history and characteristics 3. National Gallery of Art, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Welcomme E, Walter P, Van Elslande E, Tsoucaris G (2006) Appl Phys A 83:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martinetto P, Anne M, Dooryhée E, Drakopoulos M, Dubus M, Salomon J, Simionovici A, Walter P (2001) Nucl Instr Methods B 181:744–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wouters J (1985) Stud Conserv 30:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferreira ESB, Quye A, McNab H, Hulme AN (2000) Dyes Anc Textiles Dyes Hist Archaeol 18:63–72Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanyova J, Reisse J (2006) J Cult Heritage 7:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wouters J, Vanden Berghe I, Richard G, Breniaux R Cardon D (2002) Proc 21st Int Congr Dyes in History and Archaeology (to be published)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rafaëlly L, Héron S, Nowik W, Tchapla A (2008) Dyes Pigments 77:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Puchalska M, Orliska M, Ackacha MA, Polek-Pawlak K, Jarosz M (2003) J Mass Spectrom 38:1252–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Derksen GCH, Niederländer HAG, van Beek TA (2002) J Chromatogr A 978:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grim DM, Alisson J (2003) Int J Mass Spectrom 222:85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maier MS, Parera SD, Seldes AM (2003) Int J Mass Spectrom 232:225–229Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siegel J, Allison J, Mohr D, Dunn J (2005) Talanta 67:425–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schweppe H (1992) Handbuch der Naturfarbstoffe Vorkommen, Verwendung, Nachweis Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft LandsbergGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kiel EG, Heertjes PM (1963) J Soc Dyers Colourists 79:61–64Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soubayrol P, Dana G, Man PP (1996) Magn Reson Chem 34:638–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wyplosz N (2003) Laser desorption mass spectrometric studies of artists’ organic pigments. PhD dissertation, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schweppe H (1989) Historic textile and paper materials II. Conservation and characterization. American Chemical Society, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clementi C, Nowik W, Romani A, Cibin F, Favaro G (2007) Anal Chim Acta 596:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sanyova J (1998) Art et chimie la couleur. CNRS, ParisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elsa Van Elslande
    • 1
  • Vincent Guérineau
    • 2
  • Vincent Thirioux
    • 3
  • Ghislaine Richard
    • 3
  • Pascale Richardin
    • 1
  • Olivier Laprévote
    • 2
  • Georges Hussler
    • 3
  • Philippe Walter
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF)CNRS UMR 171ParisFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse, Institut de Chimie des Substances NaturellesCNRS UPR 2301Gif-sur-YvetteFrance
  3. 3.L’Oréal RechercheAulnay sous Bois CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations