Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 390, Issue 1, pp 239–243 | Cite as

Scanning force microscopy based amperometric biosensors

  • Christine KranzEmail author
  • Justyna Wiedemair


Cantilever-based biosensing has developed into an important research area especially for biomedical and clinical analysis. In particular, the possibility to scan miniaturized amperometric biosensors with high-fidelity distance control across biomedically relevant sample surfaces enables the determination of pertinent analytes such as, e.g., adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). ATP is involved in a wide variety of important regulatory cellular mechanisms, and quantification of ATP has therefore been the focus of extensive research in recent years.

Usually, scanning force microscopy-based biosensing relates to detection principles based on either mass-sensitive mechanical transduction, which can be detected as a frequency change of the cantilever, or a change in the force constant due to the absorption of molecules onto the sensor surface, as shown in Fig.  1a. Alternatively, a bimetallic cantilever can be used as a temperature sensing device for detecting calorimetric changes...


Atomic Force Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy Probe Amperometric Biosensor Scan Force Microscopy Unmodified Electrode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Ziegler C (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 379:946–959Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buxton DB, Klee SC, Wickline SA, Ferrari M (2003) Circulation 108:2737–2742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Raab A, Han W, Badt D, Smith-Gill SJ, Lindsay SM, Schindler H, Hinterdorfer P (1999) Nat Biotechnol 17:902–905Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dale N, Hatz S, Tian F, Llaudet E (2005) Trends Biotechnol 23:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horrocks BR, Schmidtke D, Heller A, Bard AJ (1993) Anal Chem 65:3605–3614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Llaudet E, Hatz S, Droniou M, Dale N (2005) Anal Chem 77:3267–3273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Compagnone D, Guilbault GG (1997) Anal Chim Acta 340:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schubert F, Kirstein D, Scheller F, Abraham M, Boross L (1986) Anal Lett 19:2155–2167Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kueng A, Kranz C, Mizaikoff B (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 19:1301–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gourine AV, Llaudet E, Dale N, Spyer KM (2005) Nature 436:108–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pearson RA, Dale N, Llaudet E, Mobbs P (2005) Neuron 46:731–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kueng A, Kranz C, Mizaikoff B (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:346–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wittstock G, Burchardt M, Pust SE, Shen Y, Zhao C (2007) Angew Chem.Int Ed 46:1584–1617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hengstenberg A, Kranz C, Schuhmann W (2000) Chem Eur J 6:1547–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Isik S, Schuhmann W (2006) Angew Chem Int Ed 45:7451–7454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Macpherson JV, Unwin PR (2000) Anal Chem 72:276–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dobson PS, Weaver JMR, Burt DP, Holder MN, Wilson NR, Unwin PR. Macpherson JV (2006) Phys Chem Chem Phys 8:3909–3914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fasching RJ, Tao Y, Prinz FB (2005) Sens Actuators B 108:964–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gullo MR, Frederix PLTM, Akiyama T, Engel A, de Rooij NF, Staufer U (2006) Anal Chem 78:5436–5442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lugstein A, Bertagnolli E, Kranz C, Mizaikoff B (2002) Surf Interface Anal 33:146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kranz C, Friedbacher G, Mizaikoff B, Lugstein A, Smoliner J, Bertagnolli E (2001) Anal Chem 73:2491–2500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davoodi A, Pan J, Leygraf C, Norgren S (2005) Electrochem Solid-State Lett.8:B21–B24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wiedemair J, Mizaikoff B, Kranz C (2006) Combined scanning probe techniques for in-situ electrochemical imaging at a nanoscale. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kueng A, Kranz C, Lugstein A, Bertagnolli E, Mizaikoff B (2005) Angew Chem Int Ed 44:3419–3422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kueng A, Kranz C, Mizaikoff B (2003) Sens Lett 1:2–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kurzawa C, Hengstenberg A, Schuhmann W (2002) Anal Chem 74:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bath BD, Phipps JB, Scott ER, Uitto OD, White HS (2001) Stud Surf.Sci Catal 132:1015–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and BiochemistryGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations