Analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables with ethyl acetate extraction using gas and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection
- 1.3k Downloads
A multiresidue method based on extraction with ethyl acetate has been used at the Swedish National Food Administration since 1989 to monitor pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables. The method has been continuously adjusted, resulting in simple and quick analyses of pesticide residues. To recover basic pesticides, the addition of an alkali is necessary. The addition of sodium hydrogen carbonate has been shown to recover all pesticides effectively without any degradation. The liquid chromatography (LC) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technique has made it possible to analyse more polar pesticides and to replace many single methods. The latest development in the multiresidue method, comprising the use of gas chromatography (GC) with MS/MS, has further improved the analysis by replacing the conventional GC detectors. The need for cleanup has been reduced or eliminated entirely. Consequently, the method has been simplified in a way that makes it possible to recover all included analytes in many different matrices in one single extraction and to detect them either with GC-MS/MS or with LC-MS/MS.
KeywordsPesticides Multiresidue analysis GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS Fruit and vegetables
We gratefully acknowledge the co-operation and the diligent and skilful experimental work of Kristina Nordmark, Cathrin Landegren, Aida Pivodic and Jesus Regalado at Analycen Lantmännen, Lidköping, Sweden, and Anna Liedgren at Chemistry Division 1, NFA, Uppsala, Sweden.
- 1.Luke MA, Froberg JE, Masumo HT (1975) J Assoc Off Anal Chem Int 58:1020Google Scholar
- 3.Andersson A, Pålsheden H, Arén B (1996) Poster presentation at the 1st European pesticide residue workshop, Alkmaar, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- 6.Barnes K, Fussell RJ, Startin J, Pegg MK, Thorpe SA, Reynolds SL (1997) Mass Spectrom 11:117Google Scholar
- 7.Barnes K, Fussell RJ, Startin J, Pegg MK, Thorpe SA, Reynolds SL (1997) Mass Spectro 11:159Google Scholar
- 8.Anastassiades M, Lehotay SJ, Šteinbaher D, Schenk FJ (2003) J AOAC Int 86:412–431Google Scholar
- 9.Gamon M, Leo C, Ten A, Mocholi F (2001) J AOAC Int 84: 1209–1216Google Scholar