Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 389, Issue 1, pp 47–61 | Cite as

Profiling methods for the determination of phenolic compounds in foods and dietary supplements

  • James M. HarnlyEmail author
  • Seema Bhagwat
  • Long-Ze Lin


Profiling methods are needed that separate and detect all the phenolic compounds in a single extract of a food material. These methods must be comprehensive, rapid, and rich in spectral information. Fourteen methods that meet, or have the potential to meet, these criteria have been selected from the recent literature for review. In general, the methods employ a single aqueous methanol extraction, separation on a reversed-phase C column, and detection by UV/vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The variations in extraction, separation, and detection are discussed. An increasingly important aspect of these methods is the archiving of data to permit cross-comparison of samples and standards and retrospective analysis. This review shows that the necessary technology is available to achieve the desired analytical goals.


Chromatographic profiling Phenolic compounds Flavonoids 



Part of this study was supported by the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health under an Interagency Agreement.


  1. 1.
    Erdman J, Balentine D, Arab L, Beecher G, Dwyer J, Folts J, Harnly J, Hollman P, Keen C, Mazza G, Messina M, Scalbert A, Vita J, Williamson G, Burrowes J (2007) J Nutr 137:718S–737SGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khachik F, Beecher G, Goli M, Lusby W (1992) Methods Enzymol 213:347–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Merken H, Beecher G (2000) J Chromatogr A 897:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sumner L, Mendes P, Dixon R (2003) Phytochem 62:817–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cuyckens F, Claeys M (2004) J Mass Spectrom 39:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prior R, Gu L (2005) Phytochemistry 66:2264–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cavalier-Smith T (1992) Ciba Found Symp 171:64–80Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kris-Etherton-P, Hecker K, Bonamone A, Coval S, Binkoski A, Hilpert K, Griel A, Watherton T (2002) Am J Med 113:71S–88SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Rijke E, Out P, Niessen W, Ariese F, Gooijer C, Brinkman U (2006) J Chromatogr A 1112:31–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Naczk M, Shahidi F (2004) J Chromatogr A 1054:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Careri M, Bianchi F, Corradini C (2002) J Chromatogr A 970:3–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    He X-G (2000) J Chromatogr A 880:203–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stobiecki M (2000) Phytochem 54:237–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Robards K (2003) J Chromatogr A 1000:657–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Molnar-Perl I, Fuzfai Z (2005) J Chromatogr A 1073:201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tura D, Robards K (2002) J Chromatogr A 975:71–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods (2006) Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville.
  18. 18.
    Hertog M, Hollman P, Venema D (1992) Food Chem 40:1591–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lamuela-Raventos R, Waterhouse A (1994) Am J Enol Vitic 45:1–5Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mouly P, Gaydou E, Auffray A (1998) J Chromatogr A 800:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Escarpa A, Gonzalez M (2000) J Chromatogr A 897:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schieber A, Keller P, Carle R (2001) J Chromatogr A 910:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cuyckens F, Claeys M (2002) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom16:2341–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakakibara H, Honda Y, Nakagawa S, Ashida H, Kanazawa K (2003) J Chromatogr A 51:571–581Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wu Q, Wang M, Simon J (2003) J Chromatogr A 1016:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tolonen A, Uusitalo J (2004) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 18:3113–3122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Papagiannopoulos M, Wollseifen H, Mellenthin A, Haber B, Galensa R (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:3784–3791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harnly J, Doherty R, Beecher G, Holden J, Haytowitz D, Bhagwat S, Gebhardt S (2006) J Agric Food Chem 54:9966–9977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lin L-Z, Harnly J (2007) J Agric Food Chem 55:1084–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stobiecki M, Skirycz A, Kerhoas L, Kachlicki P, Muth D, Einhorn J, Mueller-Roeber B (2007) Metabolomics 2:197–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Farag M, Huhman D, Lei Z, Sumner L (2007) Phytochemistry 68:342–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hakkinen S, Karenlampi S, Heinonen M, Mykkanen H, Torronen R (1998) J Sci Food Agric 77:543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mattila P, Astola J, Kumpulainen J (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:5834–5841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Justesen U (2000) J Chromatogr A 902:369–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen H, Zuo Y, Deng Y (2001) J Chromatogr A 913:387–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Franke A, Custer L, Arakiki C, Murphy S (2004) J Food Comp Anal 17:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Revila E, Ryan J-M, Martin-Ortega G (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:4592–4597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nuutila A, Kammiovirta K, Oksman-Daldentcy K-M (2002) Food Chem 76:519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang H, Helliwell K (2001) Food Res Int 34:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garcia-Viguera C, Zafrilla P, Tomas-Barberan F (1998) Phytochem Anal 9:274–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Castillo J, Benavente-Garcia O, Del Rio J (1994) J Liq Chromatogr 17:1497–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berhow M, Tisserat B, Kanes K, Vandercook C (1998) Technical bulletin no 1856. Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, BeltsvilleGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Giusti M, Rodriguez-Saona L, Griffin D, Wrolstad R (1999) J Agric Food Chem 47:4657–4664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parejo I, Jauregul O, Sanchez-Rabaneda F, Viladomat F, Bastida J, Codina C (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:3679–3687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schutz K, Kammerer D, Carle R, Schieber A (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:4090–4096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Merken H, Beecher G (2001) J Agric Food Chem 49:2727–2732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rehova L, Skerikova V, Jandera P (2004) J Sep Sci 27:1345–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crozier A, Jensen E, Lean M, McDonald M (1997) J Chromatogr A 761:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mabry T, Markham K, Thomes M (eds) (1970) The systematic identification of flavonoids. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lin L-Z, Harnly J, Pastor-Corrales M, Luthria D (2007) Food Chem (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Department of AgricultureFood Composition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.US Department of AgricultureNutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research ServiceBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations