Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of proteinaceous binders used in paintings
- 360 Downloads
The differentiation of proteins commonly found as binding media in paintings is presented based on spectrally resolved and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and total emission spectroscopy. Proteins from eggs and animal glue were analysed with pulsed laser excitation at 248 nm (KrF excimer) and 355 nm (third harmonic of Nd:YAG) for spectrally resolved measurements, and at 337 nm (N2) and 405 nm (N2 pumped dye laser) for spectrally resolved lifetime measurements and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Total emission spectra of binding media are used for the interpretation of LIF spectra. Time-resolved techniques become decisive with excitation at longer wavelengths as fluorescence lifetime permits the discrimination amongst binding media, despite minimal spectral differences; spectrally resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime have maximum differences between the binding media examined using excitation at 337 nm, with maximum observed fluorescence at 410 nm. FLIM, which measures the average lifetime of the emissions detected, can also differentiate between media, is non-invasive and is potentially advantageous for the analysis of paintings.
KeywordsProteins Fluorescence Lifetime Laser-induced fluorescence Fluorescence lifetime imaging Binding media Paintings
A.N. was supported by a Marie Curie Early Stage Training Fellowship through the ATHENA Project (MEST-CT-2004-504067) funded by the European Commission. The work at CUSBO was supported in part by the European Commission through the Research Infrastructures activity of FP6 (Laserlab-Europe RII3-CT-2003-506350).
- 6.Ladhokin A (2000) In: Meyers R (ed) Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- 12.Miyoshi T (1987) Jpn J Appl Phys 4:627–630Google Scholar
- 18.Andersen CM, Bro R (2003) J Chemom 200–215Google Scholar
- 20.Nevin A, Anglos D (2006) Laser Chem DOI 10.1155/2006/82823
- 22.Siegel J, Elson DS, Webb SED, Parsons-Karavassilis D, Lévêque-Fort S, Cole MJ, Lever MJ, French PMW, Neil MAA, Juskaitis R, Sucharov LO, Wilson T (2001) Opt Lett 26:1338–1340Google Scholar
- 26.Ceninni C (1960) The craftsman’s handbook: translation of Il libro dell’arte, Thomson, D (trans). Dover, MineolaGoogle Scholar
- 35.Hustad S, Ueland PM, Schneede J (1999) Clin Chem 45:862–868Google Scholar
- 38.Formoso C, Forster L (1975) J Biol Chem 250:3738–3745Google Scholar
- 39.Kungl AJ, Breitenbach M, Kauffmann HF (1994) Biochim Biophys Acta 1201:345–352Google Scholar