Recent progress in analytical instrumentation for glycemic control in diabetic and critically ill patients

  • Venkata Radhakrishna Kondepati
  • H. Michael Heise
Review
  • 354 Downloads

Abstract

Implementing strict glycemic control can reduce the risk of serious complications in both diabetic and critically ill patients. For this reason, many different analytical, mainly electrochemical and optical sensor approaches for glucose measurements have been developed. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been recognised as being an indispensable tool for intensive diabetes therapy. Recent progress in analytical instrumentation, allowing submicroliter samples of blood, alternative site testing, reduced test time, autocalibration, and improved precision, is comprehensively described in this review. Continuous blood glucose monitoring techniques and insulin infusion strategies, developmental steps towards the realization of the dream of an artificial pancreas under closed loop control, are presented. Progress in glucose sensing and glycemic control for both patient groups is discussed by assessing recent published literature (up to 2006). The state-of-the-art and trends in analytical techniques (either episodic, intermittent or continuous, minimal-invasive, or noninvasive) detailed in this review will provide researchers, health professionals and the diabetic community with a comprehensive overview of the potential of next-generation instrumentation suited to either short- and long-term implantation or ex vivo measurement in combination with appropriate body interfaces such as microdialysis catheters.

Keywords

Blood glucose sensors Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) Continuous glucose monitoring Diabetes mellitus Critically ill patients Artificial pancreas 

References

  1. 1.
    The DCCT Research Group (1993) N Engl J Med 329:977–986Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The DCCT Research Group (1998) Ann Intern Med 128:517–523Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (2002) JAMA 287:2563–2569Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (2003) JAMA 290:2159–2167Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Briggs AL, Cornell S (2004) J Pharm Pract 17:29–38Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Diabetes Association (2007) Diabetes Care 30:S4–S41Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan D, Peterson CM, Sacks DM (2004) Diabetes Care 27:1761–1773Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, Schetz M, Vlasselaers D, Ferdinande P, Lauwers P, Bouillon R (2001) N Engl J Med 345:1359–1367Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Williams LS, Rotich J, Qi R, Fineberg N, Espay A, Bruno A, Fineberg SE, Tierney WR (2002) Neurology 59:67–71Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van den Berghe G (2002) Int Diabetes Monit 14:1–6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Umpierrez GE, Isaacs SD, Bazargan N, You X, Thaler LM, Kitabchi AE (2002) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:978–982Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Montori VM, Bistrain BR, McMahon MM (2002) JAMA 288:2167–2169Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Finney SJ, Zekveld C, Elia A, Evans TW (2003) JAMA 290:2041–2047Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thompson CL, Dunn KC, Menon MC, Kearns LE, Braithwaite SS (2005) Diabetes Spectr 18:20–27Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mizrock BA (1995) Am J Med 98:75–107Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Inzucchi SE, Goldberg PA, Dziura JD, Siegel M, Lee M, Halickman J, Sherwin R (2003) Diabetes 52(Suppl 1):A96Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L (1999) Circulation 99:2626–2632Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Capes SE, Hunt D, Malmberg K, Gerstain HC (2000) Lancet 355:773–778Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gore DC, Chinkes D, Heggers J, Herndon DN, Wolf SE, Desai M (2001) J Trauma 51:540–544Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laird AM, Miller PR, Kilgo PD, Meredith JW, Chang MC (2004) J Trauma 56:1058–1062Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krinsley J, Grissler B (2005) Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 31:308–312Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Meersseman W, Wouters PJ, Milants I, Van Wijngaerden E, Bobbaers H, Bouillon R (2006) N Engl J Med 354:449–461Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kanji S, Singh A, Tierney M, Meggison H, McIntyre L, Hebert PC (2004) Intensive Care Med 30:804–810Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lewis KS, Kane-Gill SL, Bobek MB, Dasta JF (2004) Ann Pharmacother 38:1243–1251Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Van den Berghe G, Wouters PJ, Kesteloot K, Hilleman DE (2006) Crit Care Med 34:1–5Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vogelzang M, Van der Horst ICC, Nijsten MWN (2004) Crit Care 8:R122–R127Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldberg PA, Siegel MD, Sherwin RS, Halickman JI, Lee M, Bailey VA, Lee SL, Dziura JD, Inzucchi SE (2004) Diabetes Care 27:461–467Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lazar HL, Chipkin SR, Fitzgerald CA, Bao Y, Cabral H, Apstein CS (2004) Circulation 109:1497–1502Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Clement S, Braithwaite SS, Magee MF, Ahmann A, Smith EP, Shafer RG, Hirsch IB (2004) Diabetes Care 27:553–591Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Doran CV, Chase JG, Shaw GM, Moorhead KT, Hudson NH (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:155–165Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nakamura H, Karube I (2003) Anal Bioanal Chem 377:446–468Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Newman JD, Turner APF (2005) Biosens Bioelecton 20:2435–2453Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klonoff DC (2007) J Diabetes Sci Technol 1:130–132Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakamura H, Tanaka M, Shinohara S, Gotoh M, Karube I (2006) Biosens Bioelectron DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2006.08.018
  35. 35.
    Diessel E, Kamphaus P, Grothe K, Kurte R, Damm U, Heise HM (2005) Appl Spectrosc 59:442–451Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kilo C, Pinson M, Joynes JO, Joseph H, Monhaut N, Parkes JL, Baum J (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:283–294Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    The Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) Study Group (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:675–680Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rivers SM, Kane MP, Bakst G, Busch RS, Hamilton RA (2006) Am J Health Syst Pharm 63:1411–1416Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Solnica B, Naskalski JW (2005) Scand J Clin Lab Invest 65:80–85Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Solnica B, Naskalski JW, Hebda-Szydlo A, Sieradzki J (2005) Point of Care 4:45–48Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Harris M (2001) Diabetes Care 24:979–982Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Skeie S, Thue G, Nerhus K, Sandberg S (2002) Clin Chem 48:994–1003Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Skeie S, Thue G, Sandberg S (2001) Clin Chem 47:67–73Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Haupt A, Berg B, Paschen P, Dreyer M, Häring HU, Smedegaard J, Matthaei S (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:597–601Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ginsberg BH (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:602–603Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wagner J, Malchoff C, Abbott G (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:612–619Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clarke P, Coleman MAG, Holt RIG (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:604–608Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Peled N (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:609–611Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Norman M, Schiott J, Akerstrom S, Lattunen N, Berggren-Brostrom E (2005) Acta Paediatr 94:1427–1431Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Winter WE (2004) Clin Chem 50:985–987Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heise HM, Abel PU (2005) Clinical analysis: glucose. In: Worsfold P, Townshend A, Poole C (eds) Encyclopedia of analytical science. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klonoff DC (2005) Diabetes Care 28:1231–1239Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klonoff DC (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:770–775Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ginsberg BH (2007) J Diabetes Sci Technol 1:117–121Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    The Diabetes Research in Children Network Study Group (2004) Diabetes Care 27:722–726Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wolpert HA (2007) J Diabetes Sci Technol 1:146–150Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nichols JH, Klonoff DC (2007) J Diabetes Sci Technol 1:92–94Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kerner W (2001) Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 109(Suppl 2):S341–S346Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Abel PU, Von Woedtke T (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:1059–1070Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kvist PH, Iburg T, Bielecki M, Gerstenberg M, Buch-Rasmussen T, Hasselager E, Jensen HE (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:463–475Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Boland E, Monsod T, Delucia M, Brandt CA, Fernando S, Tamborlane WV (2001) Diabetes Care 24:1858–1862Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kerssen A, De Valk HW, Visser GHA (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:645–651Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jeha GS, Karaviti LP, Anderson B, Smith EO, Donaldson S, McGirk TS, Haymond MW (2004) Diabetes Care 27:2881–2886Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Buhling KJ, Kurzidim B, Wolf C, Wohlfarth K, Mahmoudi M, Wascher C, Siebert G, Dudenhausen JW (2004) Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 112:556–560Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jamali R, Bachrach-Lindstrom M, Mohseni S (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:509–515Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    McDonnell CM, Donath SM, Vidmar SI, Werther GA, Cameron FJ (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:253–263Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wallace AJ, Willis JA, Monro JA, Frampton CM, Hedderley DI, Scott RS (2006) Nutr Res 26:403–408Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maia FF, Araujo LR (2007) Diabetes Res Clin Pract 75:30–34Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wang XL, Lu JM, Pan CY, Mu YM, Dou JT, Ba JM, Wang X (2006) Diabetes Res Clin Pract DOI 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.08.005
  70. 70.
    Pfützner J, Forst T, Butzer R, Forst S, Weber MM, Pfützner AH, Pfützner A (2006) Diabet Med 23:1124–1129Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Allport L, Baird T, Butcher K, Macgregor L, Prosser J, Colman P, Davis S (2006) Diabetes Care 29:1839–1844Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lagarde WH, Barrows FP, Davenport ML, Kang M, Guess HA, Calikoglu AS (2006) Pediatr Diabetes 7:159–164Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cypryk K, Pertynska-Marczewska M, Szymczak W, Wilcynski J, Lewinski A (2006) Endocr Pract 12:245–250Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Paty BW, Senior PA, Lakey JR, Shapiro AM, Ryan EA (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:165–173Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wilhelm B, Forst S, Weber MM, Larbig M, Pfützner A, Forst T (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:146–155Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Praet SF, Manders RJ, Meex RC, Lieverse AG, Stehouwer CD, Kuipers H, Keizer HA, Van Loon LJ (2006) Clin Sci (Lond) 111:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    MacDonald AL, Philip A, Harrison M, Bone AJ, Watt PW (2006) Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:201–207Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yates K, Hasnat Milton A, Dear K, Ambler G (2006) Diabetes Care 29:1512–1517Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Buckingham BA, Kollman C, Beck R, Kalajian A, Fiallo-Scharer A, Tansey MJ, Fox LA, Wilson DM, Weinzimer SA, Ruedy KJ, Tamborlane WV (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:318–325Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chee F, Fernando T, Van Heerden PV (2002) Anaesth Intensive Care 30:295–308Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chee F, Fernando T, Van Heerden PV (2003) IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 7:43–53Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Piper HG, Alexander JL, Shukla A, Pigula F, Costello JM, Laussen PC, Jaksic T, Agus MS (2006) Pediatrics 118:1176–1184Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Corstjens AM, Ligtenberg JJ, Van der Horst IC, Spanjersberg R, Lind JS, Tulleken JE, Meertens JH, Zijlstra JG (2006) Crit Care 10:R135Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goldberg PA, Siegel MD, Russell RR, Sherwin RS, Halickman JI, Cooper DA, Dziura JD, Inzucchi SE (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:339–347Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wong LJ, Buckingham BA, Kunselman B, Istoc E, Leach J, Purvis R (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:139–145Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chlup R, Jelenova D, Chlupova K, Zapletalova J, Chlupova L, Bartek J (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:495–504Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Buckingham B (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:792–796Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Clarke WL, Anderson S, Farhy L, Breton M, Gonder-Frederick L, Cox D, Kovatchev B (2005) Diabetes Care 28:2412–2417Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Feldman B, Brazg R, Schwartz S, Weinstein R (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:769–779Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Garg SK, Schwartz S, Edelman SV (2004) Diabetes Care 27:734–738Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gilligan BC, Shults M, Rhodes RK, Jacobs PG, Brauker JH, Pintar TJ, Updike SJ (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:378–386Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Klueh U, Kreutzer DL (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:727–737Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Klueh U, Liu Z, Cho B, Ouyang T, Feldman B, Henning TP, Kaur M, Kreutzer D (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:402–412Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ward WK, Quinn MJ, Wood MD, Tiekotter KL, Pidikiti S, Gallagher JA (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 19:155–163Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ward WK, Wood MD, Casey HM, Quinn MJ, Federiuk IF (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:137–145Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Klueh U, Dorsky DI, Kreutzer DL (2005) Biomaterials 26:1155–1163Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ahmed S, Dack C, Farace G, Rigby G, Vadgama P (2005) Anal Chim Acta 537:153–161Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gifford R, Kehoe JJ, Barnes SL, Kornilayev BA, Alterman MA, Wilson GS (2006) Biomaterials 27:2587–2598Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Woderer S, Henninger N, Garthe CD, Kloetzer HM, Hajnsek M, Kamecke U, Gretz N, Kraenzlin B, Pill J (2007) Anal Chim Acta 581:7–12Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Yu B, Moussy Y, Moussy F (2005) Front Biosci 10:512–520Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yu B, Long N, Moussy Y, Moussy F (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 21:2275–2282Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Long N, Yu B, Moussy Y, Moussy F (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:927–936Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ward WK, Wood MD, Casey HM, Quinn MJ, Federiuk IF (2005) Artif Organs 29:131–143Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sieg A, Guy RH, Delgado-Charro MB (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:174–197Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Roe JN, Smoller BR (1998) Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 15:199–241Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schoonen MA, Wientjes KJ (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:589–598Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schoonen AJM, Wientjes KJC (2005) Sens Actuators B 105:60–64Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wientjes KJ, Grob U, Hattemer A, Hoogenberg K, Jungheim K, Kapitza C, Schoonen AJ (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:615–620Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Heinemann L (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:545–561Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ernst H, Roß B, Knoll M (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 373:758–761Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zahn JD, Hsieh Y, Yang M (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:536–545Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Heller A (2006) Anal Bioanal Chem 385:469–473Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hsieh YC, Zahn JD (2006) Biosens Bioelectron DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2006.08.044
  114. 114.
    Rajamand N, Understedt U, Brismar K (2005) Diabetes Obes Metab 7:525–535Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hullegie LM, Lutgers HL, Dullaart RPF, Sluiter WJ, Wientjes KJ, Schoonen AJM, Hoogenberg K (2000) Neth J Med 57:13–19Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Baumeister FAM, Rolinski B, Busch R, Emmrich P (2001) Pediatrics 108:1187–1192Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lourido J, Ederoth P, Sundvall N, Ungerstedt U, Nordstrom CH (2002) Scand J Clin Lab Invest 62:285–292Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rhemrev-Boom RM, Tiessen RG, Jonker AA, Venema K, Vadgama P, Korf J (2002) Clin Chim Acta 316:1–10Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Petrou PS, Moser I, Jobst G (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:613–619Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ekberg NR, Wisniewski N, Brismar K, Ungerstedt U (2005) Clin Chim Acta 359:53–64Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rossetti P, Porcellati F, Fanelli CG, Bolli GB (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:326–337Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Fayolle C, Brun J, Bringer J, Mercier J, Renard E (2006) Diabetes Metab 32:313–320Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kubiak T, Worle B, Kuhr B, Nied I, Glasner G, Hermanns N, Kulzer B, Haak T (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:570–575Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vriesendorp TM, Devries JH, Holleman F, Dzoljic M, Hoekstra JBL (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:315–322Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    De Block C, Manuel-Y-Keenoy B, Van Gaal L, Rogiers P (2006) Diabetes Care 29:1750–1756Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Poscia A, Mascini M, Moscone D, Luzzana M, Caramenti G, Cremonesi P, Valgimigli F, Bongiovanni C, Varalli M (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:891–898Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Maran A, Crepaldi C, Tiengo A, Grassi G, Vitali E, Pagano G, Bistoni S, Calabrese G, Santeusanio F, Leonetti F, Ribaudo M, Di Mario U, Annuzzi G, Genovese S, Riccardi G, Previti M, Cucinotta D, Giorgino F, Bellomo A, Giorgino R, Poscia A, Varalli M (2002) Diabetes Care 25:347–352Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Varalli M, Marelli G, Maran A, Bistoni S, Luzzana M, Cremonesi P, Caramenti G, Valgimigli F, Poscia A (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:899–905Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schoemaker M, Andreis E, Roeper J, Kotulla R, Lodwig V, Obermaier K, Stephan P, Reuschling W, Rutschmann M, Schwaninger R, Wittmann U, Rinne H, Kontschieder H, Strohmeier W (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:599–608Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kapitza C, Lodwig V, Obermaier K, Wientjes KJ, Hoogenberg K, Jungheim K, Heinemann L (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:609–614Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ricci F, Moscone D, Tuta CS, Palleschi G, Amine A, Poscia A, Valgimigli F, Messeri D (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1993–2000Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ricci F, Caprio F, Poscia A, Valgimigli F, Messeri D, Lepori E, Dall Oglio G, Palleschi G, Moscone D (2006) Biosens Bioelectron DOI 10.1016/j.bios.2006.08.041
  133. 133.
    Diem P, Kalt L, Haueter U, Krinelke L, Fajfr R, Reihl B, Beyer U (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:790–799Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Pasic A, Koehler H, Klimant I, Schaupp L (2007) Sens Actuators B Chem 122:60–68Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pasic A, Koehler H, Schaupp L, Pieber TR, Klimant I (2006) Anal Bioanal Chem 386:1293–1302Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Thoniyot P, Cappuccio FE, Gamsey S, Cordes DB, Wessling RA, Singaram B (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:279–287Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Damm U, Kondepati VR, Heise HM (2007) Vib Spectrosc 43:184–192Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Heise HM, Damm U, Kondepati VR (2007) J Biomed Opt (in press)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schaden S, Dominguez-Vidal A, Lendl B (2006) Appl Phys B 83:135–139Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lambrecht A, Beyer T, Hebestreit K, Mischler R, Petrich W (2006) Appl Spectrosc 60:729–736Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tierney MJ, Tamada JA, Potts RO, Jovanovic L, Garg S (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:621–629Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gandrud LM, Paguntalan HU, Van Wyhe MM, Kunselman BL, Leptien AD, Wilson DM, Eastman RC, Buckingham BA (2004) Pediatrics 113:108–111Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Dunn TC, Eastman RC, Tamada JA (2004) Diabetes Care 27:2161–2165Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tsalikian E, Kollman C, Mauras N, Weinzimer S, Buckingham B, Xing D, Beck R, Ruedy K, Tamborlane W, Fiallo-Scharer R (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:559–566Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hathout E, Patel N, Southern C, Hill J, Anderson R, Sharkey J, Hadley-Scofield M, Tran L, Leptien A, Lopatin M, Wang B, Mace J, Eastman R (2005) Pediatrics 115:662–666Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mauras N, Beck RW, Ruedy KJ, Kollman C, Tamborlane WV, Chase HP, Buckingham BA, Tsalikian E, Weinzimer S, Booth AD, Xing D (2004) J Pediatr 144:770–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chase HP, Beck R, Tamborlane W, Buckingham B, Mauras N, Tsalikian E, Wysocki T, Weinzimer S, Kollman C, Ruedy K, Xing D (2005) Diabetes Care 28:1101–1106Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Buckingham B, Block J, Burdick J, Kalajian A, Kollman C, Choy M, Wilson DM, Chase P (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:440–447Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    The Diabetes Research in Children Network Study Group (2005) Diabetes Care 28:1929–1935Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Chuang H, Taylor E, Davison TW (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:21–30Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gebhart S, Faupel M, Fowler R, Kapsner C, Lincoln D, McGee V, Pasqua J, Steed L, Wangsness M, Xu F, Vanstory M (2003) Diabetes Technol Ther 5:159–166Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Burdick J, Chase P, Faupel M, Schultz B, Gebhart S (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:448–455Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Piechotta G, Albers J, Hintsche R (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:802–808Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Javid PJ, Halwick DR, Betit P, Thompson JE, Long K, Zhang Y, Jaksic T, Agus MSD (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:431–439Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Caduff A, Hirt E, Feldman Y, Ali Z, Heinemann L (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 19:209–217Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Pfützner A, Caduff A, Larbig M, Schrepfer T, Forst T (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:435–441Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wentholt IM, Hoekstra JB, Zwart A, DeVries JH (2005) Diabetologia 48:1055–1058Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Caduff A, Dewarrat F, Talary M, Stalder G, Heinemann L, Feldman Y (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 22:598–604Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Khalil OS (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:660–697Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Arnold MA, Small GW (2005) Anal Chem 77:5429–5439Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Maruo K, Tsurugi M, Tamura M, Ozaki Y (2003) Appl Spectrosc 57:1236–1244Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Olesberg JT, Liu L, Zee VV, Arnold MA (2006) Anal Chem 78:215–223Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Olesberg JT, Arnold MA, Mermelstein C, Schmitz J, Wagner J (2005) Appl Spectrosc 59:1480–1484Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Heise HM (2002) Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in medical sciences. In: Siesler HW, Ozaki Y, Kawata S, Heise HM (eds) Near-infrared spectroscopy. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Heise HM, Bittner A, Marbach R (2000) Clin Chem Lab Med 38:137–145Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Maruo K, Oota T, Tsurugi M, Nakagawa T, Arimoto H, Tamura M, Ozaki Y, Yamada Y (2006) Appl Spectrosc 60:441–449Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Von Lilienfeld-Toal H, Weidenmueller M, Xhelaj A, Maentele W (2005) Vib Spectrosc 38:209–215Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Shafer-Peltier KE, Haynes CL, Glucksberg MR, Van Duyne RP (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:588–593Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Enejder AM, Scecina TG, Oh J, Hunter M, Shih W, Sasic S, Horowitz GL, Feld MS (2005) J Biomed Opt 10:1–9Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Chaiken J, Finney W, Knudson PE, Weinstock RS, Khan M, Bussjager RJ, Hagrman D, Hagrman P, Zhao Y, Peterson CM, Peterson K (2005) J Biomed Opt 10:031111Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Lambert JL, Pelletier CC, Borchert M (2005) J Biomed Opt 10:031110Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Maruo K, Oota T, Tsurugi M, Nakagawa T, Arimoto H, Hayakawa M, Tamura M, Ozaki Y, Yamada A (2006) Appl Spectrosc 60:1423–1431Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Knobbe EJ, Buckingham B (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:15–27Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Yamakoshi K, Yamakoshi Y (2006) J Biomed Opt 11:054028Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Moschou EA, Sharma BV, Deo SK, Daunert S (2004) J Fluoresc 14:535–547Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Pickup JC, Hussain F, Evans ND, Rolinski OJ, Birch DJS (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2555–2565Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Badugu R, Lakowicz JR, Geddes CD (2004) Analyst 129:516–521Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Badugu R, Lakowicz JR, Geddes CD (2004) J Fluoresc 14:617–633Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    March WF, Mueller A, Herbrechtsmeier P (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:782–789Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Badugu R, Lakowicz JR, Geddes CD (2005) Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:100–107Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Aslan K, Lakowicz JR, Geddes CD (2005) Anal Chem 77:2007–2014Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Brown JQ, Srivastava R, McShane MJ (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:212–216Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Brown IQ, McShane MJ (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 21:1760–1769Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ballerstadt R, Polak A, Beuhler A, Frye J (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 19:905–914Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Ballerstadt R, Gowda A, McNichols R (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:191–200Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ballerstadt R, Evans C, Gowda A, McNichols R (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:296–311Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Malchoff CD, Shoukri K, Landau JI, Buchert JM (2002) Diabetes Care 25:2268–2275Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Buchert JM (2004) Proc SPIE 5566:100–111Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Larin KV, Motamedi M, Ashitkov TV, Esenaliev RO (2003) Phys Med Biol 48:1371–1390Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Larin KV, Ashitkov TV, Larina IV, Petrova IY, Eledrisi MS, Motamedi M, Esenaliev RO (2004) Proc SPIE 5474:285–290Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Cote GL (2001) J Nutr 131:1596S–1604SGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Baba JS, Cameron BD, Theru S, Cote GL (2002) J Biomed Opt 7:321–328Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ansari RR, Böckle S, Rovati L (2004) J Biomed Opt 9:103–115Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Wan Q, Cote GL, Dixon JB (2004) J Biomed Opt 10:024029Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Yeh SJ, Hanna CF, Khalil OS (2003) Clin Chem 49:924–934Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Cho OK, Kim YO, Mitsumaki H, Kuwa K (2004) Clin Chem 50:1894–1898Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wickramasinghe Y, Yang Y, Spencer SA (2004) J Fluoresc 14:513–520Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Lenhard MJ, Reeves GD (2001) Arch Intern Med 161:2293–2300Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pickup J, Keen H (2002) Diabetes Care 25:593–598Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hoogma RP, Hammond PJ, Gomist R, Kerr D, Bruttomesso D, Bouter KP, Wiefels KJ, de la Calle H, Schweitzer DH, Pfohl M, Torlone E, Krinelke LG, Bolli GB (2006) Diabet Med 23:141–147Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Fisher LK, Halvorson M (2006) Diabetes Educ 32(Suppl 1):47S–52SGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Jaremko J, Rorstad O (1998) Diabetes Care 21:444–450Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Catargi B (2004) Expert Rev Med Devices 1:181–185Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Hovorka R, Chassin LJ, Wilinska ME, Canonico V, Akwi JA, Federici MO, Massi-Benedetti M, Hutzli I, Zaugg C, Kaufmann H, Both M, Vering T, Schaller HC, Schaupp L, Bodenlenz M, Pieber TR (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:307–318Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ibbini MS, Masadeh MA, Amer MM (2004) J Med Eng Technol 28:189–196Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hovorka R (2006) Diabet Med 23:1–12Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Peppas NA (2004) J Drug Del Sci Tech 14:247–256Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Dudde R, Vering T, Piechotta G, Hintsche R (2006) IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 10:395–402Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Chase JG, Shaw GM, Lin J, Doran CV, Hann C, Lotz T, Wake GC, Broughton B (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:274–282Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Bequette BW (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:28–47Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Matsuo Y, Shimoda S, Sakakida M, Nishida K, Sekigami T, Ichimori S, Ichinose K, Shichiri M, Araki E (2003) J Artif Organs 6:55–63Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Steil GM, Panteleon AE, Rebrin K (2004) Adv Drug Deliv Rev 56:125–144Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Steil GM, Clark B, Kanderian S, Rebrin K (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:94–108Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Ibbini MS, Masadeh MA (2005) J Med Eng Technol 29:64–69Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Chassin LJ, Wilinska ME, Hovorka R (2004) Artif Intell Med 32:171–181Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Chassin LJ, Wilinska ME, Hovorka R (2005) Diabetes Technol Ther 7:72–82Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Schaller HC, Schaupp L, Bodenlenz M, Wilinska ME, Chassin LJ, Wach P, Vering T, Hovorka R, Pieber TR (2006) Diabet Med 23:90–93Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Plank J, Blaha J, Cordingley J, Wilinska ME, Chassin LJ, Morgan C, Squire S, Haluzik M, Kremen J, Svacina S, Toller W, Plasnik A, Ellmerer M, Hovorka R, Pieber TR (2006) Diabetes Care 29:271–276Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Roy A, Parker RS (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:617–626Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Lonergan T, Compte AL, Willacy M, Chase JG, Shaw GM, Hann CE, Lotz T, Lin J, Wong X (2006) Diabetes Technol Ther 8:449–462Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Gomez EJ, Del Pozo F, Hernando ME (1996) Med Inform (Lond) 21:283–295Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lahtela JT, Lamminen H (2002) Ann Med 34:241–247Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Farmer A, Gibson O, Hayton P, Bryden K, Dudley C, Neil A, Tarassenko L (2005) Inform Prim Care 13:171–177Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Starren J, Hripcsak G, Sengupta S, Abbruscato CR, Knudson PE, Weinstock RS, Shea S (2002) J Am Med Inform Assoc 9:89–90Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Bellazzi R, Larizza C, Montani S, Riva A, Stefanelli M, d’Annunzio G, Lorini R, Gomez EJ, Hernando E, Brugues E, Cermeno J, Corcoy R, de Leiva A, Cobelli C, Nucci G, Del Prato S, Maran A, Kilkki E, Tuominen J (2002) Comput Methods Programs Biomed 69:147–161Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    d’Annunzio G, Bellazzi R, Larizza C, Montani S, Pennati C, Castelnovi C, Stefanelli M, Rondini G, Lorini R (2003) Acta Biomed Ateneo Parmense 74(Suppl 1):49–55Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Bellazzi R, Arcelloni M, Ferrari P, Decata P, Hernando ME, Garcia A, Gazzaruso C, Gomez EJ, Larizza C, Frantino P, Stefanelli M (2004) Diabetes Technol Ther 6:567–578Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Hernando ME, Gomez EJ, Gili A, Gomez M, Garcia G, Del Pozo F (2004) Stud Health Technol Inform 105:70–79Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Klonoff DC (2003) Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 1:94–100Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Wojcicki JM, Ladyzynski P (2003) J Artif Organs 6:73–87Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Huang CJ, Chen YH, Wang CH, Chou TC, Lee GB (2006) Sensors Actuat B: DOI 10.1016/j.snb.2006.06.015
  232. 232.
    Klonoff DC (2007) J Diabetes Sci Technol 1:72–81Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Renard E (2004) Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 13:78–86Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkata Radhakrishna Kondepati
    • 1
  • H. Michael Heise
    • 1
  1. 1.ISAS—Institute for Analytical Sciences at the University of DortmundDortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations