Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 387, Issue 6, pp 2163–2174 | Cite as

Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction

  • Maik A. Jochmann
  • Xue Yuan
  • Torsten C. SchmidtEmail author
Original Paper


In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-μm film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons.


SPDE Principle


Solid-phase dynamic extraction Volatile organic compound Groundwater analysis Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Setschenow constants 



We thank Stefan B. Haderlein and Michaela Blessing for helpful comments on the manuscript, and Thomas Wendel for support in the laboratory. Special thanks go to Satoshi Endo for detailed discussions. Technical support by Chromtech (Idstein, Germany) and financial support by the University of Tuebingen are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maik A. Jochmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xue Yuan
    • 1
  • Torsten C. Schmidt
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG)Eberhard-Karls-Universität TübingenTübingenGermany
  2. 2.University Duisburg-EssenChair of Instrumental AnalysisDuisburgGermany

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