Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 387, Issue 3, pp 965–975 | Cite as

An improved method for the analysis of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances in environmental air samples

  • Annika Jahnke
  • Lutz Ahrens
  • Ralf Ebinghaus
  • Urs Berger
  • Jonathan L. Barber
  • Christian Temme
Original Paper

Abstract

This article describes the optimisation and validation of an analytical method for the determination of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in environmental air samples. Airborne fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) as well as fluorinated sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSAs/FOSEs) were enriched on glass-fibre filters (GFFs), polyurethane foams (PUFs) and XAD-2 resin by means of high-volume air samplers. Sensitive and selective determination was performed using gas chromatography/chemical ionisation–mass spectrometry (GC/CI–MS). Five mass-labelled internal standard (IS) compounds were applied to ensure the accuracy of the analytical results. No major blank problems were encountered. Recovery experiments were performed, showing losses of the most volatile compounds during extraction and extract concentration as well as strong signal enhancement for FOSEs due to matrix effects. Breakthrough experiments revealed losses of the most volatile FTOHs during sampling, while FOSAs/FOSEs were quantitatively retained. Both analyte losses and matrix effects could be remediated by application of adequate mass-labelled IS. Method quantification limits (MQLs) of the optimised method ranged from 0.2 to 2.5 pg/m3 for individual target compounds. As part of the method validation, an interlaboratory comparison of instrumental quantification methods was conducted. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by means of environmental air samples from an urban and a rural location in Northern Germany.

Figure

High-volume air sampling of volatile polyfluorinated alkyl substances using glass fibre filters and PUF/XAD-2 cartridges at a background monitoring site (Waldhof, Germany)

Keywords

Fluorotelomer alcohols Fluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols High-volume air sampling GC/PCI–MS Isotope-labelled internal standards Matrix effects 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors kindly acknowledge Norbert Socha from 3M, Germany, for the donation of the NMeFOSA and NMeFOSE standards. We thank Scott Mabury and his group from the University of Toronto for the donation of NEtFOSE.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annika Jahnke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lutz Ahrens
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ralf Ebinghaus
    • 1
  • Urs Berger
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jonathan L. Barber
    • 5
  • Christian Temme
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research CentreGeesthachtGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental SciencesUniversity of LüneburgLüneburgGermany
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), The Polar Environmental CentreTromsøNorway
  4. 4.Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM)Stockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and TechnologyLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

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