Beyond blood sugar: the potential of NMR-based metabonomics for type 2 human diabetes, and the horse as a possible model
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Metabonomic analysis is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing metabolic disorders, for example type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an essential tool for such analysis, with special benefits. The review assesses the current status and potential of NMR-based metabonomics of type 2 diabetes. The horse is proposed as a possible model for studying this condition and disease. Some examples are shown of horse blood analyses by NMR.
KeywordsMetabonomics Type 2 diabetes Horses Glucose tolerance Insulin resistance NMR
The authors are thankful to Bruker–Biospin, Co. (Billerica, MA, USA) for providing access to essential instrumentation. Dr Robert Krull (Bruker–Biospin) provided essential help acquiring the 13C NMR spectra. M.S.H. received financial support from Wyeth Research. Additional support from Princeton University is greatly appreciated. Isotec (Stable Isotope Products: A Sigma–Aldrich Company, St Louis, MO, USA) kindly donated a substantial amount of the [U-13C]-labeled glucose. Useful discussions with Dr Richard Barton (Imperial College, London, UK) are truly appreciated.
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