Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 387, Issue 1, pp 219–236 | Cite as

Determination of airborne isocyanates

Review

Abstract

Isocyanates are important in industrial hygiene and workplace monitoring. Owing to their severe acute toxicity and sensitizing properties, analytical methods with high sampling efficiency and sensitivity in the low ppb to ppt range are required. The reactivity of isocyanates necessitates initial derivatization with nucleophilic agents—usually amines—for stabilization and enrichment; this is often followed by chromatographic separation with spectroscopic, electrochemical, or mass spectrometric detection. Sampling strategies for airborne isocyanates comprise active, i.e. pumped, or passive, i.e. diffusive, methods; the method selected depends on the application. Whereas active methods rely mainly on impingers, reagent-coated filters, or sampling tubes, passive samplers make use of reagent-coated filters, the surface of which is connected to the air sample by diffusion channels. Because airborne isocyanates are prone to occur in different forms, i.e. as vapors, as aerosols, or adsorbed on particulate matter, denuder sampling has been introduced, thus enabling simultaneous collection of gaseous and aerosol isocyanates. The first part of this review summarizes chemical methods and reagents which have been introduced for derivatization of airborne isocyanates. The advantages and drawbacks of the individual derivatization procedures and their combination with different detection principles are evaluated. In the second part, the most recent developments in air sampling for isocyanates, with special focus on diffusive sampling, are reviewed and critically discussed.

Keywords

Isocyanates Air analysis Sampling Derivatization Liquid chromatography 

Abbreviations

AMMS

9-anthracenylmethyl methylsulfide

CIS

coordination ionspray

CLND

chemiluminescence nitrogen detection

DBA

n-dibutylamine

FcPZ

ferrocenoyl piperazide

HDI

hexamethylene diisocyanate

ICA

isocyanic acid

IPDI

isophorone diisocyanate

MAMA

9-(N-methylaminomethyl)anthracene

MAP

1-(9-anthracenylmethyl)piperazine

MDI

methylenebisphenyl diisocyanate

MIC

methyl isocyanate

MMNTP

4-methoxy-6-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2-(1-piperazine)

MNMA

n-methyl-1-naphthalene methylamine

2-MP

1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine

NBDPZ

4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole

OEL

occupational exposure limit

NMA

1-naphthalene methylamine

PAC

9-anthracenylmethyl 1-piperazinecarboxylate

PDMS/DVB

poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene

2-PP

1-(2-pyridyl)piperazine

PUF

polyurethane foam

PUR

polyurethane

RH

relative humidity

SDB

polystyrene divinylbenzene

SPME

solid-phase microextraction

TBP

tributyl phosphate

TDI

toluene diisocyanate

TLV

threshold limit value

TRIG

total reactive isocyanate groups

TRYP

tryptamine

VOC

volatile organic compound

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Analysis and MESA+ Institute for NanotechnologyUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute of Inorganic and Analytical ChemistryUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany

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