Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 386, Issue 4, pp 1025–1041 | Cite as

Biosensors as useful tools for environmental analysis and monitoring

  • Sara Rodriguez-MozazEmail author
  • Maria J. Lopez de Alda
  • Damià Barceló
Review

Abstract

Recent advances in the development and application of biosensors for environmental analysis and monitoring are reviewed in this article. Several examples of biosensors developed for relevant environmental pollutants and parameters are briefly overviewed. Special attention is paid to the application of biosensors to real environmental samples, taking into consideration aspects such as sample pretreatment, matrix effects and validation of biosensor measurements. Current trends in biosensor development are also considered and commented on in this work. In this context, nanotechnology, miniaturisation, multi-sensor array development and, especially, biotechnology arise as fast-growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new biosensing strategies in the near future.

Keywords

Biosensors Environmental analysis Review Trends 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by the EU project SWIFT-WFD (SSPI-CT-2003-502492) and by the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (project number CTM2005-24255-E). Sara Rodriguez acknowledges the I3P Program (Itinerario integrado de inserción professional; co-financed by CSIC and European Social Funds).

References

  1. 1.
    Kroger S, Law RJ (2005) Trends Biotechnol 23:250–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allan IJ, Vrana B, Greenwood R, Mills DW, Roig B, Gonzalez C (2006) Talanta 69:302–322Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kröger S, Law RJ (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1903–1913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thevenot DR, Toth K, Durst RA, Wilson GS (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:121–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parellada J, Narvaez A, Lopez MA, Dominguez E, Fernandez JJ, Pavlov V, Katakis I (1998) Anal Chim Acta 362:47–57Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Turner APF (2000) Science 5495:1315–1317ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Collings AF, Caruso F (1997) Rep Prog Phys 60:1145–1397Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Cai X, Palecek E, Nielsen P, Shiraishi H, Dontha N, Luo D, Parrado C, Chicharro M (1997) Anal Chim Acta 347:1–8Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marazuela MD, Moreno-Bondi MC (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 372:664–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Homola J, Yee SS, Gauglitz G (1999) Sens Actuators B 54:3–15Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ramanathan K, Danielsson B (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moulin AM, O’Shea SJ, Welland ME (2000) Ultramicroscopy 82:23–31Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hock B (1997) Anal Chim Acta 347:177–186Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Suri CR, Raje M, Varshney GC (2002) Crit Rev Biotechnol 22:15–32Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bousse L (1996) Sens Actuators B 34:270–275Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang J (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:63–71ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhai J, Cui H, Yang R (1997) Biotechnol Adv 15:43–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee JH, Mitchell RJ, Kim BC, Cullen DC, Gu MB (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:500–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Farre Ml, Brix R, Barcelo D (2005) Trends Anal Chem 24:532–545Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Castillo M, Alonso MC, Riu J, Reinke M, Kloter G, Dizer H, Fischer B, Hansen PD, Barcelo D (2001) Anal Chim Acta 426:265–277Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Environmental Agency UK (1999) Direct Toxicity Assessment, Newsletter. July 1999Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gu MB, Kim EJ, Cho J, Hansen PD (2001) Environ Monit Assess 70:71–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee JH, Gu MB (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1744–1749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bechor O, Smulski DR, Van Dyk TK, LaRossa RA, Belkin S (2002) J Biotech 94:125–132Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim EJ, Lee JE, Gu MB (2002) Water Sci Technol 46:51–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Paitan Y, Biran D, Biran I, Shechter N, Babai R, Rishpon J, Ron EZ (2003) Biotechnol Adv 22:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kostrzynska M, Leung KT, Lee H, Trevors JT (2002) J Microbiol Methods 48:43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Usami M, Mitsunaga K, Ohno Y (2002) J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 81:47–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hock B, Seifert M, Kramer K (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:239–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Seifert M, Haindl S, Hock B (1999) Anal Chim Acta 386:191–199Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hahn T, Tag K, Riedel K, Uhlig S, Baronian K, Kunze G, Gotthard G (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 22:2078–2085Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wozei E, Hermanowicz SW, Holman H-YN (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 21:1654–1658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Murata M, Nakayama M, Irie H, Yakabe K, Fukuma K, Katayama Y, Maeda M (2001) Anal Sci 17Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dempsey E, Diamond D, Collier A (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 20:367–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhihong M, Xiaohui L, Weiling F (1999) Anal Comm 36:281–283Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Darain F, Park DS, Park J-S, Chang S-C, Shim Y-B, Keiko Y (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1780–1787Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Abdelghani A, Jaffrezic-Renault N (2001) Sens Actuators B 74:117–123Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu J, Mattiasson B (2002) Water Res 36:3786–3802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Qian Z, Tan TC (1999) Water Res 33:2923–2928Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li F, Tan TC (1994) Biosens Bioelectron 9:315–324Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chee G-J, Nomura Y, Ikebukuro K, Karube I (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:371–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chee G-J, Nomura Y, Ikebukuro K, Karube I (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jang JD, Barford JP, Lindawati, Renneberg R (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 19:805–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nasser AM, Oman SD (1999) Water Res 33:1748–1752Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ivnitski D, Abdel-Hamid I, Atanasov P, Wilkins E (1999) Biosens Bioelectron 14:599–624Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Iqbal SS, Mayo MW, Bruno JG, Bronk BV, Batt CA, Chambers JP (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:549–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Koubova V, Brynda E, Karasova L, Skvor J, Homola J, Dostalek J, Tobiska P, Rosicky J (2001) Sens Actuators B 74:100–105Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pathirana ST, Barbaree J, Chin BA, Hartell MG, Neely WC, Vodyanoy V (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:135–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ercole C, Gallo MD, Pantalone M, Santucci S, Mosiello L, Laconi C, Lepidi A (2002) Sens Actuators B 83:48–52Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hasebe Y, Yokobori K, Fukasawa K, Kogure T, Uchiyama S (1997) Anal Chim Acta 357:51–54Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Benhar I, Eshkenazi I, Neufeld T, Opatowsky J, Shaky S, Rishpon J (2001) Talanta 55:899–907Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goldman ER, Pazirandeh MP, Mauro JM, King KD, Frey JC, Anderson GP (2000) J Molec Recogn 13:382–387Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Leonard P, Hearty S, Brennan J, Dunne L, Quinn J, Chakraborty T, O’Kennedy R (2003) Enzyme Microb Technol 32:3–13Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Choi J-W, Kim Y-K, Lee I-H, Min J, Lee WH (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:937–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Andreou VG, Clonis YD (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:61–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Andres RT, Narayanaswamy R (1997) Talanta 44:1335–1352Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Law K, Higson SPJ (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1914–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sotiropoulou S, Fournier D, Chaniotakis NA (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2347–2352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bucur B, Dondoi M, Danet A, Marty J-L (2005) Anal Chim Acta 539:195–201Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schulze H, Vorlova S, Villatte F, Bachmann TT, Schmid RD (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mulchandani A, Chen W, Mulchandani P, Wang J, Rogers KR (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Smith MH, Rechnitz GA (1993) Anal Chem 65:380–385Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    McArdle FA, Persaud KC (1993) Analyst 118:419–423Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wang J, Chen L (1995) Anal Chem 67:3824–3827Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Everett WR, Rechnitz GA (1998) Anal Chem 70:807–810Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Noguer T, Marty J-L (1997) Anal Chim Acta 347:63–69Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Giardi MT, Koblizek M, Masojidek J (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:1027–1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Koblizek M, Maly J, Masojidek J, Komenda J, Kuera T, Giardi MT, Mattoo AK, Pilloton R (2002) Biotech Bioeng 78:110–116Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vedrine C, Leclerc J-C, Durrieu C, Tran-Minh C (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:457–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wilmer M, Trau D, Renneberg R, Spener F (1997) Anal Lett 30:515–525Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schipper EF, Bergevoet AJH, Kooyman RPH, Greve J (1997) Anal Chim Acta 341:171–176Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schipper EF, Rauchalles S, Kooyman RPH, Hock B, Greve J (1998) Anal Chem 70:1192–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Brummel KE, Wright J, Eldefrawi ME (1997) J Agr Food Chem 45:3292–3298Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mallat E, Barzen C, Abuknesha R, Gauglitz G, Barcelo D (2001) Anal Chim Acta 427:165–171Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mallat E, Barzen C, Abuknesha R, Gauglitz G, Barcelo D (2001) Anal Chim Acta 426:209–216Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mallat E, Barzen C, Klotz A, Brecht A, Gauglitz G, Barcelo D (1999) Environ Sci Tech 33:965–971Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mauriz E, Calle A, Abad A, Montoya A, Hildebrandt A, Barceló D, Lechuga LM (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 21:2129–2136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mouvet C, Haris RD, Maciag C, Luff BJ, Wilkinson JS, Piehler J, Brecht A, Gauglitz G, Abuknesha R, Ismail G (1997) Anal Chim Acta 338:109–117Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gonzalez-Martinez MA, Penalva J, Puchades R, Maquieira A, Ballesteros B, Pilar Marco M, Barcelo D (1998) Environ Sci Tech 32:3442–3447Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gonzalez-Martinez MA, Puchades R, Maquieira A (2001) Anal Chem 73:4326–4332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Minunni M, Skladal P, Mascini M (1994) Life Chem Rep 11:391–398Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yokoyama K, Ikebukuro K, Tamiya E, Karube I, Ichiki N, Arikawa Y (1995) Anal Chim Acta 304:139–145Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ngeh-Ngwainbi J, Foley PH, Kuan SS, Guilbault GG (1986) J Am Chem Soc 108:5444–5447Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Horacek J, Skladal P (1997) Biosens Bioelectron 12:v–viGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Larsson DGJ, Adolfsson-Erici M, Parkkonen J, Pettersson M, Berg AH, Olsson P-E, Forlin L (1999) Aqua Toxicol 45:91–97Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ternes TA, Kreckel P, Mueller J (1999) Sci Total Environ 225:91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Belfroid AC, Van der Horst A, Vethaak AD, Schafer AJ, Rijs GBJ, Wegener J, Cofino WP (1999) Sci Total Environ 225:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Environment Agency (1998) Endocrine—Disrupting Substances in the Environment: What Should Be Done?, in Environmental Issues Series, Consultative ReportGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lange IG, Daxenberger A, Schiffer B, Witters H, Ibarreta D, Meyer HHD (2002) Anal Chim Acta 473:27–37Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Reder S, Lopez de Alda M, Gauglitz G, Barceló D (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 19:633–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tschmelak J, Proll G, Gauglitz G (2004) Anal Chim Acta 519:143–146Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hua P, Hole JP, Wilkinson JS, Proll G, Tschmelak J, Gauglitz G, Jackson M, Nudd R, Griffith H, Abuknesha R, Kaiser J, Kraemmer P (2005) Optics Express 13:1124–1130ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tschmelak J, Kumpf M, Kappel N, Proll G, Gauglitz G (2006) Talanta 69:343–350Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Marrazza G, Chianella I, Mascini M (1999) Anal Chim Acta 387:297–307Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zhao CQ, Anis NA, Rogers KR, Kline RH, Wright J, Eldefrawi AT, Eldefrawi ME (1995) J Agric Food Chem 2308–2315Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Endo T, Okuyama A, Matsubara Y, Nishi K, Kobayashi M, Yamamura S, Morita Y, Takamura Y, Mizukami H, Tamiya E (2005) Anal Chim Acta 531:7–13Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shimomura M, Nomura Y, Zhang W, Sakino M, Lee K-H, Ikebukuro K, Karube I (2001) Anal Chim Acta 434:223–230Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Del Carlo M, Lionti I, Taccini M, Cagnini A, Mascini M (1997) Anal Chim Acta 342:189–197Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lee N, Holtzapple CK, Stanker LH (1998) J Agric Food Chem 46:3381–3388Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pasini P, Gentlilomi G, Baraldini M, Musiani M, Roda A (2002) 12th international symposium on bioluminescence and chemiluminescenceGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kasai A, Hiramatsu N, Meng Y, Yao J, Maeda S, Kitamura M (2005) Anal Biochem 337:84–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Degiuli A, Blum LJ (2000) J Med Biochem 4:32–42Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Matsunaga T, Ueki F, Obata K, Tajima H, Tanaka T, Takeyama H, Goda Y, Fujimoto S (2003) Anal Chim Acta 475:75–83Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Soh N, Watenabe T, Asano Y, Imato T (2003) Sens Mater 15:423–438Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Marchesini GR, Meulenberg E, Haasnoot W, Irth H (2005) Anal Chim Acta 528:37–45Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lopez de Alda M, Barceló D (2005) Water Res 39:20Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Andreescu S, Sadik OA (2004) Anal Chem 76:552–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Reshetilov AN, Semenchuk IN, Iliasov PV, Taranova LA (1997) Anal Chim Acta 347:19–26Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Taranova L, Semenchuk I, Manolov T, Iliasov P, Reshetilov A (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:635–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Waters J, Feijtel TCJ (1995) Chemosphere 30:1939–1956Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nomura Y, Ikebukuro K, Yokoyama K, Takeuchi T, Arikawa Y, Ohno S, Karube I (1998) Biosens Bioelectron 13:1047–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rose A, Nistor C, Emneus J, Pfeiffer D, Wollenberger U (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:1033–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Evtugyn GA, Eremin SA, Shaljamova RP, Ismagilova AR, Budnikov HC (2006) Biosens Bioelectron (in press)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Stiner L, Halverson LJ (2002) Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1962–1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sticher P, Jaspers MC, Stemmler K, Harms H, Zehnder AJ, van der Meer JR (1997) Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4053–4060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Koenig A, Zaborosch C, Spener F (1997) Microbial sensors for PAH in aqueous solution using solubilizers. In: Gottlieb J et al (ed) Field screening Europe. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 203–206Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Berno E, Pereira Marcondes DF, Ricci Gamalero S, Eandi M (2004) Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 57:118–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Doong R-A, Shih H-M, Lee S-h (2005) Sens Actuators B 111:323–330Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Coille I, Reder S, Bucher S, Gauglitz G (2002) Biomol Engin 18:273–280Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Setford SJ, Van Es RM, Blankwater YJ, Kroger S (1999) Anal Chim Acta 398:13–22Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ahmad A, Ramakrishnan A, McLean MA, Li D, Rock MT, Karim A, Breau AP (2002) Anal Biochem 300:177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Akkoyun A, Kohen VF, Bilitewski U (2000) Sens Actuators B 70:12–18Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hansen LH, Sorensen SJ (2000) FEMS Microbiol Lett 190:273–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Patel PD (2002) Trends Anal Chem 21:96–115Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Subrahmanyam S, Piletsky SA, Turner APF (2002) Anal Chem 74:3942–3951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Guilbault GG, Sibley DET, Carter RM, Lubrano GJ (1993) NATO ASI Ser E 252:377–385Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Carter RM, Lubrano GJ, Guilbault GG (1994) Life Chem Rep 11:271–277Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Delehanty JB, Ligler FS (2002) Anal Chem 74:5681–5687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Palleschi G, Compagnone D, Moscone D (1997) VTT Symp 177:141–160Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tran Minh C, Pandey PC (1992) Bull Electrochem 8:199–204Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Campas M, Szydlowska D, Trojanowicz M, Marty J-L (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1520–1530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tempelman LA, King KD, Anderson GP, Ligler FS (1996) Anal Biochem 233:50–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Feng CD, Nelson TE, Hardman s, Hesketh PJ, Maclay GJ, Gendel SM, Stetter JR (1995) Impedance analysis of ultrathin platinum film immunosensors with different thickness and macro geometry. In the 8th International Conference on Solid–State Sensors and Actuators, and Eurosensors IX, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kumar P, Colston JT, Chambers JP, Rael ED, Valdes JJ (1994) Biosens Bioelectron 9:57–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ogert RA, Brown JE, Singh BR, Shriver-Lake LC, Ligler FS (1992) Anal Biochem 205:306–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Marks RS, Hale ZM, Levine MM, Lowe CR, Payne FP (1994) Proc SPIE-Int Soc Opt Eng 2131:495–503ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Rasmussen LD, Sorensen SJ, Turner RR, Barkay T (2000) Soil Biol Biochem 32:639–646Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Durrieu C, Tran-Minh C (2002) Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 51:206–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Krawczynski vel Krawczyk T, Moszczynska M, Trojanowicz M (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:681–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Yerian TD, Christian GD, Ruzicka J (1988) Anal Chim Acta 204:7–28Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tsai H-C, Doong R-A, Chiang H-C, Chen K-T (2003) Anal Chim Acta 481:75–84Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nam YJ, Kim N, Volotovsky V (1997) Sens Actuators B 42:233–237Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Petanen T, Romantschuk M (2002) Anal Chim Acta 456:55–61Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ivask A, Virta M, Kahru A (2002) Soil Biol Biochem 34:1439–1447Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Liao VH-C, Chien M-T, Tseng Y-Y, Ou K-L (2006) Environ Pollut 142:17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kulys J, Higgins IJ, Bannister JV (1992) Biosens Bioelectron 7:187–191Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wollenberger U, Schubert F, Scheller FW (1992) Sens Actuators B 7:412–415Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Larsen LH, Kjær T, Revsbech NP (1997) Anal Chem 69:3527–3531Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Taylor CJ, Bain LA, Richardson DJ, Spiro S, Russell DA (2004) Anal Biochem 328:60–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wang X, Dzyadevych SV, Chovelon J-M, Renault NJ, Chen L, Xia S, Zhao J (2006) Electrochem Comm 8:201–205Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Trojanowicz M, Szewczynska M (2005) Trends Anal Chem 24:92–106Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Fishman HA, Greenwald DR, Zare RN (1998) Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 27:165–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lopez de Alda M, Barceló D (2006) Talanta 69:343–350Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bhattacharyya J, Read D, Amos S, Dooley S, Killham K, Paton GI (2005) Environ Pollut 134:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tonning E, Sapelnikova S, Christiansen J, Carlsson C, Winther-Nielsen M, Dock E, Solna R, Skladal P, Norgaard L, Ruzgas T, Emneus J (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:608–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Evans MR, Jordison GM, Rawson DM, Regerson JG (1998) Pest Sci 54:447Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Farre M, Pasini O, Carmen Alonso M, Castillo M, Barcelo D (2001) Anal Chim Acta 426:155–165Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Farre M, Barcelo D (2003) Trends Anal Chem 22:299–310Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Palmer G, McFadzean R, Killham K, Sinclair A, Paton GI (1998) Chemosphere 36:2683–2697Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lorenzen J, Larsen L, Kjaer T, Revsbech N (1998) Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3264–3269Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Peñalva J, Gonzalez-Martinez M-A, Puchades R, Maquieira A, Marco M-P, Barceló D (1998) Anal Chim Acta 387:227–233Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Tonnina D, Campanella L, Sammartino M, Visco G (2002) Ann Chim 92:477–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Podola B, Nowack ECM, Melkonian M (2004) Biosens Bioelectron 19:1253–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lanyon YH, Marrazza G, Tothill I, Mascini M (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2089–2096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Purohit HJ (2003) J Clean Prod 11:293–301Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Oubina A, Gascon J, Barcelo D (1997) Anal Chim Acta 347:121–130Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Gonzalez-Martinez MA, Puchades R, Maquieira A (1999) Trends Anal Chem 18:204–218Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tschmelak J, Proll G, Gauglitz G (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 21:979–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gabaldon JA, Maquieira A, Puchades R (1999) Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 39:519–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hammock BD, Gee S (2002) ReportGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Amine A, Mohammadi H, Bourais I, Palleschi G (2006) Biosens Bioelectron 21:1405–1423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Horacek J, Skladal P (2000) Anal Chim Acta 412:37–45Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Krasnova AI, Krikounova VS, Eremin SA, Scekacs A (2000) Vestnik moskovskogo universiteta. Khimiya 41:150–152Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Kissinger PT (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2512–2516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Cardenas S, Valcarcel M (2005) Trends Anal Chem 24:477–487Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Trullols E, Ruisanchez I, Rius FX (2004) Trends Anal Chem 23:137–145Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Alocilja EC, Radke SM (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Tothill IE (2001) Comput Electron Agric 30:205–218Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kroger S, Piletsky S, Turner APF (2002) Mar Pollut Bull 45:24–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Brecht A (2005) Anal Bioanal Chem 381:1025–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Rich RL, Myszka DG (2000) Curr Opin Biotech 11:54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Glazier SA, Campbell ER, Campbell WH (1998) Anal Chem 70:1511–1515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Behnisch PA, Hosoe K, Sakai S-i (2001) Environ Int 27:413–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Carrascosa LG, Moreno M, Alvarez M, Lechuga LM (2006) Trends Anal Chem 25:196–206Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sheehan DA, Quinn J, Daly CL, Dillon P, O’Kennedy R (2003) Anal Lett 36:551–537Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Han T-S, Sasaki S, Yano K, Ikebukuro K, Kitayama A, Nagamune T, Karube I (2002) Talanta 57:271–276Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tschmelak J, Proll G, Riedt J, Kaiser J, Kraemmer P, Barzaga L, Wilkinson JS, Hole JP, Nudd R, Jackson M, Abuknesha R, Barcelo D, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lopez de Alda MJ, Sacher F, Stien J, Slobodnik J, Oswald P, Kozmenko H, Korenkova E, Tothova L, Krascsenits Z, Gauglitz G (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1499–1508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Haes AJ, Van Duyne RP (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:10589–10595Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Kawazumi H, Gobi V, Ogino K, Maeda H, Miura N (2005) Sens Actuators B 108:791–796Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Dostálek J, Vaisocherová H, Homola J (2005) Sens Actuators B 18:758–764Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Rowe-Taitt CA, Golden JP, Feldstein MJ, Cras JJ, Hoffman KE, Ligler FS (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 14:785–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Rowe-Taitt CA, Hazzard JW, Hoffman KE, Cras JJ, Golden JP, Ligler FS (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:579–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Wadkins RM, Golden JP, Pritsiolas LM, Ligler FS (1998) Biosens Bioelectron 13:407–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bachmann TT, Schmid RD (1999) Anal Chim Acta 401:95–103Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Mastichiadis C, Kakabakos SE, Christofidis I, Koupparis MA, Willetts C, Misiakos K (2002) Anal Chem 74:6064–6072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Barzen C, Brecht A, Gauglitz G (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:289–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tschmelak J, Proll G, Gauglitz G (2005) Talanta 65:313–323Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Bange A, Halsall HB, Heineman WR (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2488–2503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Tschmelak J, Proll G, Riedt J, Kaiser J, Kraemmer P, Barzaga L, Wilkinson JS, Hole JP, Nudd R, Jackson M, Abuknesha R, Barcelo D, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Lopez de Alda MJ, Sacher F, Stien J, Slobodnik J, Oswald P, Kozmenko H, Korenkova E, Tothova L, Krascsenits Z, Gauglitz G (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:1509–1519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Goldman ER, Clapp AR, Anderson GP, Uyeda HT, Mauro JM, Medintz IL, Mattoussi H (2005) Anal Chem 76:684–688Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Jianrong C, Yuqing M, Nongyue H, Xiaohua W, Sijiao L (2004) Biotechnol Adv 22:505–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Tiefenauer L, Ros R (2002) Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 23:95–114Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Wink TH, van Zuilen SJ, Bult A, van Bennekom WP (1997) Analyst 122:43–50Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Tiefenauer LX, Kossek S, Padeste C, Thiebaud P (1997) Biosens Bioelectron 12:213–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Malinsky MD, Kelly KL, Schatz GCVD, Richard P (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:1471–1482Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Taton TA, Lu G, Mirkin CA (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:5164–5165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Cao Y, Jin R, Mirkin CA (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:7961–7962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Lazarides AA, Lance Kelly K, Jensen TR, Schatz GC (2000) J Mol Struct Theochem 529:59–63Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Cui Y, Wei Q, Park H, Lieber CM (2001) Science 293Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ilic B, Craighead H, Kyrlov S, Senaratne W, Ober CK, Neuzil P (2004) J Appl Phys 95:3694ADSGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Alvarez M, Calle A, Tamayo J, Lechuga LM, Abad A, Montoya A (2003) Biosens Bioelectron 18:649–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lundstrom I, Svensson S (2002) Curr Appl Phys 2:17–21Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Sequeira M, Bowden M, Minogue E, Diamond D (2002) Talanta 56:355–363Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Suzuki H (2000) Mater Sci Eng C 12:55–61Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ziegler C, Gopel W (1998) Curr Opin Chem Biol 2:585–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Jenkins AL, Yin R, Jensen JL (2001) Analyst 126:798–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Haupt K, Mayes AG, Mosbach K (1998) Anal Chem 70:3936–3939Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Keane A, Phoenix P, Ghoshal S, Lau PCK (2002) J Microbiol Methods 49:103–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Choi SH, Gu MB (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:433–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Taitt CR, Anderson GP, Ligler FS (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2470–2487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Kroger K, Jung A, Reder S, Gauglitz G (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:37–48Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Tombelli S, Minunni M, Mascini M (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:2424–2434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Tan TC, Wu C (1999) Sens Actuators B 54:252–260Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Tschmelak J, Proll G, Gauglitz G (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 379:1004–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Prakash Deo R, Wang J, Block I, Mulchandani A, Joshi KA, Trojanowicz M, Scholz F, Chen W, Lin Y (2005) Anal Chim Acta 530:185–189Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Nistor C, Rose A, Farre M, Stoica L, Wollenberger U, Ruzgas T, Pfeiffer D, Barcelo D, Gorton L, Emneus J (2002) Anal Chim Acta 456:3–17Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Tsai H-C, Doong R-A (2005) Biosens Bioelectron 20:796–1804Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria J. Lopez de Alda
    • 1
  • Damià Barceló
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryIIQAB-CSICBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations