Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 381, Issue 2, pp 508–519 | Cite as

Determination of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aerosol samples by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

  • Jutta Lintelmann
  • Karin Fischer
  • Erwin Karg
  • Andreas Schröppel
Original Paper


Fine and ultrafine particles are probably responsible for numerous health effects, but it is still unclear whether and to what extent the particle itself or organic compounds adsorbed or condensed on the particle are responsible for the effects observed. One important class of particle-bound substances are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their oxygenated derivatives. To improve the tools used for chemical characterization of particulate matter analytical methods for the determination of PAH and oxygenated PAH in aerosol samples of different origin have been developed and optimized. PAH on high-volume filters and on soot aerosols were analyzed by using accelerated solvent extraction for extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for separation and quantification. Total PAH concentrations were in the range 0.3–9.3 ng m−3. For analysis of selected oxygenated PAH on high-volume filters a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method was developed and optimized. Preliminary investigations showed that oxygenated PAH at pg m−3 concentrations can be determined.


PAH Oxygenated PAH LC–MS–MS LC–MS–MS ASE Particulate matter 



This work was performed within the GSF Focus Network Aerosols and Health.


  1. 1.
    Katsouyanni K, Touloumi G, Spix C, Schwartz J, Balducci F, Medina S (1997) Short term effects of ambient sulphur dioxide and particulate matter on mortality in 12 European cities: results from time series data from the APHEA project. BMJ 314:1658–1663Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dockery DW, Pope CA (1994) Annu Rev Pub Health 15:107–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (1996) Am J Resp Crit Care 153:3–50Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pope CA, Dockery DW (1999) In: Holgate ST, Samet JM, Koren HS, Maynard RL (eds) Air pollution and Health. Academic, San Diego, pp 673–705Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    US-EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development (1996) Air quality criteria for particulate matter, Washington. EPA/600//P-95/001cFGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oberdörster G, Gelein R, Ferin J, Weiss B (1995) Inhal Toxicol 7:111–124Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oberdörster G (1994) Int Arch Occ Env Health 74:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oberdörster G, Ferin J, Lehnert BE (1994) Environ Health Perspect 102:173–177Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oberdörster G (2000) Philos T Roy Soc A 358:2719–2740Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wichmann HE, Spix C, Tuch T, Wölke G, Peters A, Heinrich J, Kreyling WG, Heyder J (2000) Daily mortality and fine and ultrafine particles in Erfurt, Germany. Part I: role of particle number and particle mass. Health Effects Institute Report No. 98Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pekkanen J, Timonen KL, Ruuskanen J, Reponene A, Mirme A (1997) Environ Res 74:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wichmann HE, Peters A (2000) Philos T Roy Soc A 358:2751–2769Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harvey RG (1997) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boström C-E, Gerde P, Hanberg A, Jernström B, Johansson C, Kyrklund T, Rannung A, Törnqvist M, Victorin K, Westerholm R (2002) Environ Health Perspect 110(3):451–489Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ATSDR (1995) Toxicological profile for polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), update. Agency for Toxic Substances and Drug Registry, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    WHO/IPCS (1998) Selected non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Health Criteria 202, World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Junker M, Kasper M, Röösli M, Camnezind M, Künzli N, Monn Ch, Theis G, Braun-Fahrländer Ch (2000) Atm Environ 34:3171–3181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Motelay-Massei A, Ollivon D, Garban B, Chevreuil M (2003) Atmos Environ 37:3135–3146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schnelle-Kreis J, Gebefügi I, Welzl G, Jaensch T, Kettrup A (2001) Atmos Environ 35:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harrad S, Hassoun S, Callén Romero MS, Harrison RM (2003) Atmos Environ 37:4985–4991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schuetzle D (1983) Environ Health Perspect 47:65–80Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schuetzle D, Rilley TL, Prater TJ, Harvey TM, Hunt DF (1982) Anal Chem 54:265–271Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Finlayson-Pitts BJ, Pitts JN (2000) Chemistry of the upper and lower atmosphere. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pöschl U (2002) J Aerosol Med 15 (2):203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bolton JL, Trush MA, Penning TM, Dryhurst G, Monks TJ (2000) Chem Res Toxicol 13 (3):135–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li N, Wang M, Oberley TD, Sempf JM, Nel AE (2002) J Immunol 169:4531–4541Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Casillas A, Dotson AR, Saxon A (1996) J Allergy Clin Immun 98:114–123Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Fleming J, Saxon A (1999) J Immunol 158:2406–2413Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Fleming J, Saxon A (1999) Clin Immunol 90:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Penichet-Garcia M, Wang M, Jyrala M, Saxon A (1999) J Allergy Clin Immun 104:1183–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Diaz-Sanchez D, Jyrala M, Ng D, Nel A, Saxon A (2000) Clin Immunol 97(2):140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Squadrito GL, Cueto R, Dellinger B, Pryor WA (2001) Free Radical Bio Med 31(9):1132–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dellinger B, Pryor WA, Cueto R, Squadrito GL, Hegde V, Deutsch WA (2001) Chem Res Toxicol 14:1371–1377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hiura TS, Kaszubowski MP, Li N, Nel AE (1999) J Immunol 163:5582–5591Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lintelmann J, Günther WJ, Rose E, Kettrup A (1993) Fresenius J Anal Chem 346:988–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schauer C, Niessner R, Pöschl U (2003) Environ Sci Technol 37:2861–2868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Allen JO, Dookeran NM, Taghizadeh K, Lafleur AL, Smith KA, Sarofim AF (1997) Environ Sci Technol 31:2064–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cho AK, Di Stefano E, You Y, Rodriguez CE, Chmitz DA, Kumagai Y, Miguel AH, Eiguren-Fernandez A, Kobayashi T, Avol E, Froines JR (2004) Aerosol Sci Technol 38(S1):68–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Koeber R, Bayona JM, Niessner R (1997) Int J Environ Anal Chem 66:313–325Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koeber R, Niessner R, Bayona JM (1997) Fresenius J Anal Chem 359:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Letzel T, Pöschl U, Rosenberg E, Grasserbauer M, Niessner R (1999) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 13:2456–2468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Letzel T, Rosenberg E, Wissiack R, Grasserbauer M, Niessner R (1999) J Chromatogr A 855:501–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Koeber R, Bayona JM, Niessner R (1999) Environ Sci Technol 33:1552–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Letzel T, Pöschl U, Wissiack R, Rosenberg E, Grasserbauer M, Niessner R (2001) Anal Chem 73:1634–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wild SR, Waterhouse KS, McGrath SP, Jones KC (1990) Environ Sci Technol 24:1706–1711Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lopez-Avila V, Bauer K, Milanes J, Beckert WF (1993) AOAC Int 76:864–880Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eiceman GA, Viu AC, Karasek FW (1980) Anal Chem 52:1492–1496Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wenzel KD, Hubert A, Manz M, Weissflog L, Engewald W, Schüürmann G (1998) Anal Chem 70:4827–4835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Babic S, Petrovic M, Kastelan-Macan M (1998) J Chromatogr A 823:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chester TL, Pinkston JD, Raynie DE (1998) Anal Chem 70:301R-320RCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Turrio-Baldassari L, Bayarri S, di Domenic A, Iacovella N, La Rocca C (1999) Int J Environ Anal Chem 75:217–227Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Camel V (1998) Analusis 26:M99-M111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Veith GD, Kiwus LM (1977) Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 17:631–636Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Seidel V, Lindner W (1993) Anal Chem 65:3677–3683Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ramos L, Tabera J, Hernández LM, González MJ (1998) Anal Chim Acta 376:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dupeyron S, Dudermel M, Couturier D, Guarini P, Delattre JM (1999) Int J Environ Anal Chem 73:191–210Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lopez-Avila V, Young R, Teplitsky N (1996) JAOAC Int 79:142–156Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Berg BE, Lund HS, Kringstad A, Kwernheim AL (1999) Chemosphere 38:587–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yang Y, Hawthorne SB, Miller DJ (1997) Environ Sci Technol 31:430–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hartonen K, Inkala K, Kangas M, Riekola M-L (1997) J Chromatogr A 785:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Field JA, Monohan K, Reed R (1998) Anal Chem 70:1956–1962Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Martens D, Gferer M, Wenzl T, Zhang A, Gawlik BM, Schramm K-W, Lankmayr E, Kettrup A (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 372:562–568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gferer M, Stadlober M, Gawlik B, Wenzl T, Lankmayr E (2001) Chromatographia 53:442–446Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gferer M, Chen S, Lankmayr EP, Quan X, Yang F (2004) Anal Bioanal Chem 378:1861–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Richter BE, Jones BA, Ezzell JL, Porter NL (1996) Anal Chem 68:1033–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hawthorne SB, Grabanski CB, Martin E, Miller DJ (2000) J Chromatogr A 892:421–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zdráhal Z, Karásek P, Lojková L, Bucková M, Vecera Z, Vejrosta J (2000) J Chromatogr A 893:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hollander J, Koch B, Lutermann C, Dott W (2003) Intern J Environ Anal Chem 83:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Saim N, Dean JR, Abdullah MP, Zakaria Z (1998) Anal Chem 70:420–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Heemken OP, Theobald N, Wenclawiak BW (1997) Anal Chem 69:2171–2180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arditsoglou A, Terzi E, Kalaitzoglou M, Samara C (2003) Environ Sci Pollut R 10:354–356Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Alexandrou N, Smith M, Park R, Lumb K, Brice K (2001) Intern J Environ Anal Chem 81:257–280Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schantz MM, Nichols JJ, Wise SA (1997) Anal Chem 69:4210–4219Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Turrio-Baldassarri L, Battistelli CL, Iamiceli AL (2003) Anal Bioanal Chem 375:589–595Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    DIN 38407–18 (1999) Deutsche Einheitsverfahren zur Wasser-, Abwasser- und Schlammuntersuchung—Gemeinsam erfassbare Stoffgruppen (Gruppe F)—Teil 18: Bestimmung von 15 polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) durch Hochleistungs-Flüssigkeitschromatographie (HPLC) und Fluoreszenzdetektion (F18)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    DIN 38407–23 (2002) Deutsche Einheitsverfahren zur Wasser-, Abwasser- und Schlammuntersuchung—Schlamm und Sedimente (Gruppe S)—-Teil 23: Bestimmung von 15 polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) durch Hochleistungs-Flüssigkeitschromatographie (HPLC) und Fluoreszenzdetektion (S23)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    DIN 32645 (1994) Chemische Analytik; Nachweis-, Erfassungs- und Bestimmungsgrenze; Ermittlung unter Wiederholbedingungen; Begriffe, Verfahren, Auswertung. Beuth Verlag, Berlin Wien ZürichGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lundstedt S (2003) Analysis of PAHs and their transformation products in contaminated soil and remedial processes. PhD thesis, Umea University, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Private communications: A. Schröppel, Institute for Inhalation Biology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85758 Neuherberg/MunichGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Richter H, Howard JB (2000) Prog Energy Comb 26:565–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Venkataraman C, Lyons JM, Friedlander SK (1994) Environ Sci Technol 28:555–562Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Benner BA, Gordon GE (1989) Environ Sci Technol 23:1269–1278Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Miguel AH, Kirchstetter TW, Harley RA, Hering SV (1998) Environ Sci Technol 32:450–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marr LC, Kirchstetter TW, Harley RA, Miguel AH, Hering SV, Hammond SK (1999) Environ Sci Technol 33:3091–3099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Caricchia AM, Chiavarini S, Pezza M (1999) Atmos Environ 33:3731–3738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Smith DJT, Harrison RM (1996) Atmos Environ 30:2513–2525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Greenber A, Darack F, Harkov R, Lioy P, Daisey J (1985) Atmos Environ 19:1325–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jutta Lintelmann
    • 1
  • Karin Fischer
    • 1
  • Erwin Karg
    • 2
  • Andreas Schröppel
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Ecological ChemistryGSF National Research Center for Environment and HealthNeuherberg/MunichGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Inhalation BiologyGSF National Research Center for Environment and HealthNeuherberg/MunichGermany

Personalised recommendations