Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 381, Issue 2, pp 279–301 | Cite as

Passive sampling and/or extraction techniques in environmental analysis: a review

  • Jacek Namieśnik
  • Bożena Zabiegała
  • Agata Kot-Wasik
  • Monika Partyka
  • Andrzej Wasik


The current state-of-the-art of passive sampling and/or extraction methods for long-term monitoring of pollutants in different environmental compartments is discussed in this review. Passive dosimeters that have been successfully used to monitor organic and inorganic contaminants in air, water, sediments, and soil are presented. The application of new approaches to the determination of pollutants at the sampling stage is discussed. The main milestones in the development of passive techniques for sampling and/or extraction of analytes, and in biomonitors used in environmental analysis, are summarized in this review. Passive samplers and biomonitors are compared.


Sampling/extraction techniques Passive sampling Environmental analysis Solid-phase microextraction Biomonitoring Speciation 



Activated carbon cloth strips


Benzene, toluene, and xylenes




Capillary adsorption tubes






Carbonyl-diffusive sampling device




Environmental Protection Agency


Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene


Gas chromatography


Impregnated glass fiber filters


Low-density polyethylene


Liquid passive sampler


Lawrence Berkeley national laboratory occupational carbon oxide dosimeter


Membrane-enclosed sorptive coating sampler


Nafion-coated passive sampler



OC pesticides (OCP)

Organochlorine pesticides




Organic-vapor monitor




Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons


Personal aldehydes and ketones sampler


Passive air samplers


Polychlorinated biphenyls


Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins


Polychlorinated dibenzofurans


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers


Passive diffusion bag sampler




Passive integrative mercury sampler


Passive in-situ concentration–extraction sampler


Permeation liquid membrane


Polymer-coated glass


Persistent organic pollutants


Parallel-plate dialyzer




Polyurethane foam


Stir-bar-sorptive extraction


Supported liquid membrane


Stabilized liquid membrane device


Solid-phase extraction


Semipermeable membrane


Semipermeable membrane devices


Solid-phase microextraction


Semi-volatile organic compounds




Templated resin


Trimethylpentane solvent passive samplers


Volatile organic compounds


X-ray fluorescence


  1. 1.
    Gutschmidt K, Kettrup A (1992) Fresenius Environ Bul 11:388–393Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown VM, Crump DR, Gardiner D (1992) Environ Technol 13:367–375Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cao XL, Hewitt CN (1991) Environ Technol 12:1055–1062Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown RH (1993) Pure Appl Chem 65:1859–1874Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kozdroń-Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J, Przyjazny A (1995) Indoor Environ 4:189–203Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cox RM (2003) Environ Pollut 126:301–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gordon CS, Lowe JT (1927) US Patent 1.644 014Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Plantz CA, McConnaughey PW, Jenca CC (1968) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Palmes ED, Gunnison AF (1973) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 34:78–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reiszner KD, West PW (1973) Environ Sci Technol 57:526–532Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Braun LD, Trine A (1976) US Patent 3 950 980Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hardy JK, Dasgupta PK, Reiszner KD, West PW (1979) Environ Sci Technol 13:1090–1093Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yanagisawa Y, Nishimura H (1980) J Jpn Soc Air Pollut 15:316–323Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krochmal D, Górski L (1991) Fresenius J Anal Chem 31:3473–3479Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anders L (1980) Proceedings of 3-rd Utah conference on industrial hygiene sampling and analysis, Salt Lake City, UT, 6–8.10.1980Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown RH, Charlton J, Saunders KJ (1981) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 42:865–869Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dyck W, DaSilva FG (1981) J Geochem Explor 14:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cox PC, Brown RH (1984) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 45:345–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lewis RG, Mulik JD, Coutant RW, Wooten GW, McMillin CR (1985) Anal Chem 57:214–219Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Malley MJ, Bath WW, Bongers LH (1985) Proc NWWA/API Conference titled Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Detection, Restoration. National Water Well Association, Dublin, Ohio, p 10Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levin JO, Lindahl R, Andersson K (1986) Environ Sci Technol 20:1273–1276Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krochmal D, Górski L (1991) Environ Sci Technol 25:531–535Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Södergren A (1987) Environ Sci Technol 21:855–859Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    DiGiano FA, Elliot D, Leith D (1988) Environ Sci Technol 22:1365–1367Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bertoni G, Canepari S, Rotatori M, Fractarcangeli R, Liberti A (1990) J Chromatogr 522:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Belardi JG, Pawliszyn J (1989) Water Pollut Res J Can 24:179–191Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Willems JJH, Hofschreuder P (1991) In: Field intercomparison exercise on ammonia and ammonium measurement. Air pollution Research report 37, CNR, Commission of the European Communities, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huckins JN, Tubergen MW, Lebo JA, Gale RW, Schwartz TR (1990) J Am Off Anal Chem 73:290–293Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Górecki T, Namieśnik J (2002) Trends Anal Chem 21:276–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Arthur CL, Pawliszyn J (1990) Anal Chem 62:2145–2148Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ferm M (1991) A sensitive diffusional sampler. IVL-Report B1020. Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Götheborg, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pawliszyn J (1991) Method and device for SPME and desorption, PCT. International Patent Publication Number WO91/15745Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Solomon DK (1992) The use of tritium and helium isotopes to determine groundwater recharge to unconfined aquifers. PhD Dissertation, University of Waterloo, p 213Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (1992) Trends Anal Chem 11:106–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Arthur CL, Killam L, Buchholz KD, Pawliszyn J (1992) Anal Chem 64:1960–1966Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koutrakis P, Wolfson JM, Bunyaviroch A, Froehlich SE, Hirano K, Mulik JD (1993) Anal Chem 65:209–214Google Scholar
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
    Berqvist PA, Strandberg B, Rappe C (1993) Anal Proc 30:404–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Karp KE (1993) GWMR Winter 101–106Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Litten S, Mead B, Hassett J (1993) Environ Toxicol Chem 12:639–647Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang Z, Pawliszyn J (1993) Anal Chem 65:1843–1852Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang Z, Yang MJ, Pawliszyn J (1994) Anal Chem 66:844A–853AGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cisper ME, Earl WL, Nogar NS, Hemberg PH (1994) Anal Chem 66:1897–1901Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Peterson SM, Apte SC, Batley GE, Coade G (1995) Chem Speciation Bioavailability 7:83–88Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen J, Pawliszyn J (1995) Anal Chem 67:2530–2533Google Scholar
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
    Górecki T, Pawliszyn J (1995) J High Resolut Chromatogr 18:161–166Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chai M, Pawliszyn J (1995) Environ Sci Technol 29:693–701Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cocheo V, Boaretto C, Sacco P (1996) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 57:897–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang Z, Poerschmann J, Pawliszyn J (1996) Anal Com 33:129–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vroblesky DA, Rhodes LC, Robertson JF (1996) Ground water 34:223–230Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pan L, Pawliszyn J (1997) Anal Chem 69:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sansford WE, Shropshire RG, Solomon DK (1996) Water Resourc Res 32:1635–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Górecki T, Mindrup R, Pawliszyn J (1996) Analyst 121:1381–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McComb ME, Gesser HD (1997) Anal Chim Acta 341:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grote C, Pawliszyn J (1997) Anal Chem 69:587–596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Grathwohl P, Schiedek T (1997) In: Gottlieb J et al (eds) Field Screening Europe. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 33Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Poerschmann J, Kopinke FD, Pawliszyn J (1997) Environ Sci Technol 31:3629–3636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baltussen E, Sandra P, David F, Cramers C (1999) J Microcolumn Sep 11:737–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Muller L (1999) (eds) Applications of solid-phase microextraction. RSC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mester Z, Pawliszyn J (1999) Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 13:1999–2003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bertoni G, Tappa R, Allegrini I (2000) Ann Chim 90:249–263Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Müller JF, Hawker DH, Connell DW, Kömp P, McLachlan MS (2000) Atmos Environ 34:3525–3534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kingston JK, Greenwood R, Mills GA, Morrison GM, Persson LB (2002) J Environ Monit 2:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bertoni G, Tappa R, Allegrini I (2001) Chromatographia 54:653–657Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bertoni G, Tappa R, Allegrini I (2001) Chromatographia Suppl 53:S312–S314Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vrana B, Popp P, Paschke A, Schüürmann G (2001) Anal Chem 73:5191–5200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Handley J, Harris CM (2001) Anal Chem 73:660A–666APubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Leonard AW, Hyne RV, Pablo F (2002) Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2591–2599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Booij K, Smedes F, van Weerlee EM (2002) Chemosphere 46:1157–1161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Brumbaugh WG, Petty JD, Huckins JN, Manahan SE (2002) Water, Air, Soil Pollut 133:109–119Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Namieśnik J, Górecki T (2000) LC-GC Europe 13:678–683Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kot A, Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J (2000) Trends Anal Chem 19:446–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Berlin A, Brown RH, Saunders J (eds) (1987) Diffusive sampling. An alternative to workplace air monitoring. Royal Society of ChemistryGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zabiegała B, Przyk E, Namieśnik J, Przyjazny A (2000) Chem Anal (Warsaw) 45:11–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
  77. 77.
    De Santis F, Dogeroglu T, Fino A, Menichelli S, Vazzana C, Allegrini I (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 373:901–907CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Begerow J, Jermann E, Keles T, Dunemann L (1999) Fresenius J Anal Chem 363:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilcockson JB, Gobas FAPC (2001) Environ Sci Technol 35:1425–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Harner T, Farrar NJ, Shoeib M, Jones KC, Gobas FAPC (2003) Environ Sci Technol 37:2486–2493CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jaward FM, Farrar NJ, Harner T, Sweetman AJ, Jones KC (2004) Environ Sci Technol 38:34–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brumbaugh WG, Petty JD, May TW, Huckins JN (2000) Chemosphere 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
    Kisso Y (1986) Chromatographia 22:55–65Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Johnson GD (1991) Environ Sci Technol 25:1897–1903Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Södergren A (1990) Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 19:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lebo JA, Zajicek JL, Huckins JN, Petty JD, Peterman PH (1992) Chemosphere 25:697–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meadows J, Tillitt D, Huckins J, Schroeder D (1993) Chemosphere 26:1993–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lebo JA, Almeida FV, Cranor WL, Petty JD, Huckins JN, Rastall A, Alvarez DA, Mogensen BB, Johnson BT (2004) Chemosphere 54:1217–1224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rantalainen AL, Crewe NF, Ikonomou MG (2000) Intern J Environ Anal Chem 76:31–47Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Audunsson G (1988) Anal Chem 60:1340–1347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lindegard B, Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (1992) J Chromatogr 573:191–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gronberg J, Lokvist P, Jönsson JÅ (1992) Chromatographia 33:77–84Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Romero R, Jönsson JÅ, Gázquez D, Bagur MG, Sánchez-Viñas M (2002) J Separation Sci 25:584–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jung V, Chimuka L, Jönsson JÅ, Niedack N, Bowens P, Alsanius B (2002) Anal Chim Acta 474:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Megersa N, Chimuka L, Solomon T, Jönsson JÅ (2001) J Separation Sci 24:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mathiasson L, Nilve G, Ulen B (1990) Int J Environ Anal Chem 45:117–125Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Megersa N, Jönsson JÅ (1998) Analyst 123:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Djane NK, Ndung’u K, Malcus F, Johansson G, Mathiasson L (1997) Fresenius J Anal Chem 358:822–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Buffle J, Parthasarathy N, Djane NK, Mathiasson L (2000) Permeation liquid membranes for field analysis and speciation of trace compounds in water. In: Buffle J, Horvai G (eds) In situ monitoring of aquatic systems: chemical analysis and speciation. Wiley, Chichester, pp 407–493Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (1999) Trends Anal Chem 18:318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (1999) Trends Anal Chem 18:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (2001) J Separation Sci 24:495–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (2000) Chromatographia Suppl 52: S8 - S11Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sandahl M, Mathiasson L, Jönsson JÅ (2002) J Chromatogr A 975:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L (2000) J Chromatogr A 902:205–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jönsson JÅ, Mathiasson L, Chimuka L, Cukrowska E (2003) Membrane techniques for analysis, sampling and speciation in environmental measurements. In: Namieśnik J et al (eds) New horizons and challenges in environmental analysis and monitoring. CEEAM, GdanskGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Huckins JN, Tubergen MW, Manuweera GK (1990) Chemosphere 20:533–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Petty JD, Poulton BC, Charbonneau JN, Huckins JN, Jones SB, Cameron JT, Prest HF (1998) Environ Sci Technol 32:837–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Prest HF, Jacobson LA, Wilson M (1997) Chemosphere 35:3047–3063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lohmann R, Corrigan BP, Howsak M, Jones K, Ockenden WA (2001) Environ Sci Technol 35:2576–2582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lebo JA, Zajicek JL, Orazio CE, Petty JD, Huckins JN, Douglas EH (1996) Polycyclic Aromatic Compd 8:53–65Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gustavson KE, Harkin JM (2000) Environ Sci Technol 34:4445–4451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Luellen DA, Shea D (2002) Environ Sci Technol 36:1791–1797CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Verweij F, Booij K, Satumalay K, van der Molen N, van der Oost R (2004) Chemosphere 11:1675–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Williamson KS, Petty JD, Huckins JN, Lebo JA, Kaiser EM (2002) Chemosphere 49:703–715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Williamson KS, Petty JD, Huckins JN, Lebo JA, Kaiser EM (2002) Chemosphere 49:717–729CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Berqvist PA, Strandberg B, Ekelund R, Rappe C, Granmo Å (1998) Environ Sci Technol 32:3887–3892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Booij K, van Drooge BL (2001) Chemosphere 2:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Booij K, Zegers BN, Boon JP (2002) Chemosphere 46:683–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rantalainen AL, Ikonomou MG, Rogers IH (1998) Chemosphere 37:1119–1138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ockenden WA, Prest HF, Thomas GO, Sweetman A, Jones KC (1998) Environ Sci Technol 32:1538–1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Corrigan BP, Jones KC (2002) Organohalogen Compds 56:449–452Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Petty JD, Huckins JN, Zajicek JL (1993) Chemosphere 27:1609–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Granmo Å, Ekelund R, Berggren M, Brorström-Lunden E, Bergqvist PA (2000) Environ Sci Technol 34:3323–3329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ellis GS, Huckins JN, Rostad CE, Schmitt CJ, Petty JD, MacCarthy P (1995) Environ Toxicol Chem 14:1875–1884Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Prest HF, Jacobson LA, Huckins JN (1995) Chemosphere 30:1351–1361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Petty JD, Huckins JN, Martin DB, Adornato TG (1995) Chemosphere 30:1891–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rohr AC, Hall ER, Hall KJ (1996) Water Qual Res J Can 31:85–100Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Strandberg B, Wagman N, Bergqvist PA, Haglund P, Rappe C (1997) Environ Sci Technol 31:2960–2965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lebo JA, Gale RW, Petty JD, Tillitt DE, Huckins JN, Meadows JC, Orazio CE, Echols KR, Schroeder DJ, Inmon LE (1995) Environ Sci Technol 29:2886–2892Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lyytikäinen M, Hirva P, Minkkinen P, Hämäläinen H, Rantalainen AL, Mikkelson P, Paasivirta J, Kukkonen JVK (2003) Environ Sci Technol 37:3926–3934CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Følsvik N, Brevik EM, Berge JA (2002) J Environ Monit 4:280–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Følsvik N, Brevik EM, Berge JA (2000) J Environ Monit 2:281–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Blom LB, Moriison GM, Kingston J, Mills GA, Greenwood R, Pettersson TJR, Rauch S (2002) J Environ Monit 4:258–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mattice JD, Park SK, Lavy TL (1998) Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 60:202–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gesser HD, Giller E (1995) Environ Int 21:839–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Paschke A, Vrana B, Popp P, Wennrich L, Lorenz W, Schüürmann G (2003) Novel passive samplers for monitoring organic pollutants in surface and ground water based on membrane-enclosed silicone material. In: Namieśnik J et al (eds) New horizons and challenges in environmental analysis and monitoring. CEEAM, GdanskGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hoekstra EJ, Duyzer JH, de Leer EWB, Brinkman UAT (2001) Atmos Environ 35:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sugisaki R, Taki K (1987) Geochem J 21:23–27Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Heaton THE, Vogel JC (1981) J Hydrol 50:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Namieśnik J, Zygmunt B, Jastrzębska A (2000) J Chromatogr A 855:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pawliszyn J (2003) Anal Chem 75:2543–2558CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Krutz LJ, Senseman SA, Sciumbato AS (2003) J Chromatogr A 999:103–121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kataoka H (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 373:31–45CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mayer P, Tolls J, Hermens JLM, MacKay D (2003) Environ Sci Technol May:185A–191AGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Namieśnik J, Wardencki W (2000) J High Resolut Chromatogr 23:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Zygmunt B, Jastrzębska A, Namieśnik J (2001) Crit Rev Anal Chem 31:1–18Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pawliszyn J (1995) Trends Anal Chem 14:113–122Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Pawliszyn J (ed) (1997) Solid-phase microextraction. Theory and practice. Wiley-VCH, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Pawliszyn J (ed) (1999) Applications of solid-phase microextraction. The Royal Society of Chemistry, HertfordshireGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Chiranzelli J, Aspler L, Dunn C, Cousens B, Ozarko D, Powis K (2001) Appl Geochem 16:245–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ikingura JR, Akagi H (2002) Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 68:699–704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Roose P, Brinkman UAT (2000) Mar Pollut Bull 40:1167–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Fiedler H, Cheung CK, Wong MH (2002) Chemosphere 46:1429–1433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gerdol R, Bragazza L, Marchesini R, Medici A, Pedrini P, Benedetti S, Bovolenta A, Coppi S (2002) Atmos Environ 36:4069–4075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Orliński R (2002) Chemosphere 48:181–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Zelano V, Gulmini M, Grisello S, Torazzo A (2000) Toxicol Environ Chem 78:41–53Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ok G, Ji SH, Kim SJ, Kim YK, Park JH, Kim YS, Han YH (2002) Chemosphere 46:1351–1357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Keymeulen R, Görgenyi M, Heberger K, Priksane A, van Langenhove H (2001) Atmos Environ 35:6327–6335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Villa S, Finizio A, Diaz Diaz R, Vighi M (2003) Water Air Soil Pollut 146:335–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ke L, Wong TWY, Wong YS, Tam NFY (2002) Mar Pollut Bull 45:339–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wu WZ, Schramm KW, Kettrup A (2001) Water Res 35:1141–1148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Malea P, Haritonidis S (2000) J Appl Phycol 12:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Montone RC, Taniguchi S, Sericano J, Weber RR, Lara WH (2001) Sci Total Environ 277:181–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Robles LC, Feo JC, Aller AJ (2000) Anal Chim Acta 423:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Back RC, Gorski PR, Cleckner LB, Hurley JP (2003) Sci Total Environ 304:349–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gorski PR, Cleckner LB, Hurley JP, Sierszen ME, Armstrong DE (2003) Sci Total Environ 304:327–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Vesk PA, Byrne M (1999) Sci Total Environ 225:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Costa M, Paiva E, Moreira I (2000) Sci Total Environ 261:69–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Carls MG, Babcock MM, Harris PM, Irvine GV, Cusick JA, Rice SD (2001) Mar Environ Res 51:167–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Knutzen J, Bjerkeng B, Næs K, Schlabach M (2003) Chemosphere 52:745–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hong HK, Takahashi S, Min BY, Tanabe S (2002) Environ Pollut 117:475–486CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Binelli A, Bacchetta R, Vailati G, Galassi S, Provini A (2001) Chemosphere 45:409–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Christensen JH, Glasius M, Pecseli M, Platz J, Pritzl G (2002) Chemosphere 47:631–638CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    de Brito APX, Takahashi S, Ueno D, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Kubodera T (2002) Mar Pollut Bull 45:348–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Julshamn K, Grahl-Nielsen O (2000) Sci Total Environ 250:123–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Minh TB, Prudente MS, Watanabe M, Tanabe S, Nakata H, Miyazaki N, Jefferson TA, Subramanian A (2000) Water Sci Technol 42:231–240Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Takahashi S, Le LTH, Saeki H, Nakatani N, Miyazaki N, Fujise Y (2000) Water Sci Technol 42:97–108Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Storelli MM, Marcotrigiano GG (2000) Mar Pollut Bull 40:555–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Minh TB, Watanabe M, Tanabe S, Miyazaki N, Jefferson TA, Prudente MS, Subramanian A, Karuppiah S (2000) Environ Pollut 110:459–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Boon JP, Lewis WE, Tjoen-A-Choy MR, Allchin CR, Law RJ, de Boer J, Ten Hallers-Tjabbes CC, Zegers BN (2002) Environ Sci Technol 36:4025–4032CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gouteux B, Lebeuf M, Muir DCG, Gagne JP (2002) Environ Sci Technol 37:4603–4609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Derocher AE, Wolkers H, Colborn T, Schlabach M, Larsen TS, Wiig Ø (2003) Sci Total Environ 301:163–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Henriksen EO, Wiig Ø, Skaare JU, Gabrielsen GW, Derocher AE (2001) J Environ Monit 3:493–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Kannan K, Hilscherova K, Imagawa T, Yamashita N, Williams LL, Giesy JP (2001) Environ Sci Technol 35:441–447CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Guruge KS, Watanabe M, Tanaka H, Tanabe S (2001) Environ Pollut 114:389–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Herzke D, Gabrielsen GW, Evenset A, Burkow IC (2003) Environ Pollut 121:293–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Tao S, Long A, Liu C, Dawson R (2000) Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 47:59–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Kehrig HA, Costa M, Moreira I, Malm O (2001) Environ Sci Pollut Res 8:275–279Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bayarri S, Baldassarri LT, Iacovella N, Ferrara F, di Domenic A (2001) Chemosphere 43:601–610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Pastor D, Boix J, Fernandez V, Albaiges J (1996) Mar Pollut Bull 32:257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Rice CP, Chernyak SM, Begnoche L, Quintal R, Hickey J (2002) Chemosphere 49:731–737CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Sawidis T, Chettri MK, Papaioannou A, Zachariadis G, Stratis J (2001) Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 48:27–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Clarkson PJ, Larrazabal-Moya D, Staton I, McLeod CW, Ward DB, Sharifi VN, Swithenbank J (2002) Intern J Environ Anal Chem 82:843–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    McDonald JG, Hites RA (2003) Environ Sci Technol 37:475–481CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Booij K, Zegers BN, Boon JP (2002) Chemosphere 46:683–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Booij K, Zegers BN, Boon JP (2000) Organohalogen Compds 47:89–92Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ikonomou MG, Rayne S, Fischer M, Fernandez MP, Cretney W (2002) Chemosphere 46:649–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kukkonen JVK, Rantalainen AL, Mikkelson P, Lyytikänen M, Hämäläinen H, Paasivirta J (1998) Organohalogen Compds 39:5–8Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Petty JD, Jones SB, Huckins JN, Cranor WL, Parris JT, McTague TB, Boyle TP (2000) Chemosphere 41:311–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Herve S, Prest HF, Heinonen P, Hyötyläinen T, Koistinen J, Paasivirta J (1995) Environ Sci Pollut Res 2:24–30Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Prest HF, Jarman WM, Burns SA, Weismüller T, Martin M, Huckins JN (1992) Chemosphere 25:1811–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Richardson BJ, Zheng GJ, Tse ESC, Lam PKS (2001) Chemosphere 45:1201–1208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kukkonen JVK, Landrum PF (1998) Aquat Toxicol 42:229–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Leppänen MT, Kukkonen JVK (1998) Environ Toxicol Chem 17:2196–2202Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kot A, Namieśnik J (2000) Trends Anal Chem 19:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Mester Z, Sturgeon R, Pawliszyn J (2001) Spectrochim Acta 56:233–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Pressman MAS, Aldstadt JH (2003) Microchem J 74:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Parthasarathy N, Pelletir M, Buffle J (2004) J Chromatogr A 1025:33–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Louch J, Allen G, Erickson C, Wilson G, Schmedding D (2003) Environ Sci Technol 37:1202–1207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Berqvist PA, Strandberg B, Rappe C (1999) Chemosphere 38:933–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Zhuang Y, Poon K, Lam M, Hong H, Wu RSS (2001) Chin J Oceanol Limnol 19:382–388Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Vrana B, Paschke A, Popp P (2001) J Environ Monit 3:602–609CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Čáslavský J, Zdráhal Z, Vytopilová M (2000) Polycyclic Aromatic Compd 20:123–141Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Grimmer G, Jacob J, Naujack KW (1997) Chemosphere 34:2213–2226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Booij K, van Drooge BL (2001) Chemosphere 44, 91–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Nilvé G, Audunsson G, Jönsson JÅ (1989) J Chromatogr 471:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Jönsson JÅ, Lövkvist P, Audunsson G, Nilvé G (1993) Anal Chim Acta 277:9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Arlidskov NP, Pedersen PG, Albrechtsen HJ (2001) Ground Water 39:819–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Herve S, Paukku R, Paasivirta J, Heinonen P, Södergren A (1991) Chemosphere 22:997–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Wania F, Shen L, Duan Lei Y, Teixeira C, Muir DCG (2003) Environ Sci Technol 37:1352–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Parker LV, Clark CH (2002) Study of five discrete interval-type groundwater sampling devices, Technical Report ERDC/CRREL TR-02–12Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Zimmerman LR, Thurman EM, Bastian KC (2000) Sci Total Environ 248:168–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Schlink U, Rehwagen M, Damm M, Richter M, Borte M, Herbarth O (2004) Atmos Environ 38:1181–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Shih TS, Chan CY, Cheng RI, Wu LJ (2000) Int Arch Occup Environ Health 73:98–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Begerow J, Jermann E, Keles T, Koch T, Dunemann L (1996) J Chromatogr A 749:181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Gelencsér A, Kiss Gy, Hlavay J, Hafkenscheid ThL, Peters RJB, de Leer EWB (1994) Talanta 41:1095–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Bouhamra WS (1995) Environ Pollut 90:121–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Bouhamra WS, BuHamra SS, Thomson MS (1997) Environ Intern 23:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Bertoni G, Ciuchini C, Pasini A, Tappa R (2002) J Environ Monit 4:903–909CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Zabiegała B, Górecki T, Przyk E, Namieśnik J (2002) Atmos Environ 36:2907–2916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Zabiegała B, Przyjazny A, Namieśnik J (1999) J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 18:47–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J, Przyk E, Górecki T (1999) Chemosphere 39:2035–2046CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Joos PE, Godoi AFL, DeJong R, de Zeeuw J, van Grieken R (2003) J Chromatogr 985:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Bomboi MT, Perez A, Rodriguez B, Galan D, Diaz Fernandez R (2002) Fresenius Environ Bull 11:437–440Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Delcourt J, Sandino JP (2001) Int Arch Occup Environ Health 74:49–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Gobba F, Ghittori S, Imbriani M, Cavalleri A (2000) Int Arch Occup Environ Health 73:56–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Evans M, Molyneux M, Sharp T, Bailey A, Hollingdale-Smith P (1977) Ann Occup Hyg 20:357–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Pengelly I, Groves JA, Levin JO, Lindahl R (1996) Am Occup Hyg 40:555–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Büldt A, Lindahl R, Levin JO, Karst U (1999) J Environ Monit 1:39–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Lindahl R, Levin JO (1995) J Chromatogr A 710:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Lindahl R, Levin JO, Mårtensson M (1996) Analyst 121:1177–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Tsai SW, QueHee SS (1999) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 60:463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Zhang J, Zhang L, Fan Z, Ilacqua V (2000) Environ Sci Technol 34:2601–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Andreini BP, Baroni R, Galimberti E, Sesana G (2000) Microchem J 67:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Mori Y, Setsuda S, Goto S, Onodera S, Nakai S, Matsushita H (1999) J Health Sci 42:105–110Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Uchijama S, Haseghawa S (1999) Atmos Environ 33:1999–2005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sunesson AL, Sundgren M, Levin JO, Eriksson K, Carlson R (1999) J Environ Monit 1:45–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Eriksson K, Levin JO (1995) Chemosphere 30:1541–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Eriksson K (1994) Analyst 119:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Lindahl R, Levin JO, Andersson K (1993) J Chromatogr 643:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Demokritou P, Yang C, Chen Q, Spengler JD 2002, Build Environ 37:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Tanaka S, Nomiyama T, Miyauchi H, Nakazawa M, Yamauchi T, Yamada K, Seki Y (2002) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 63:726–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Monn C, Brändli O, Schindler C, Ackermann-Liebrich U, Leuenberger P, SAPALDIA Team (1998) Sci Total Environ 215:243–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Ross D (1996) Environ Technol 17:147–155Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Roadman MJ, Scudlark JR, Meisinger JJ, Ullman WJ (2003) Atmos Environ 37:2317–2325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Goryński P, Szutowicz I, Wojtyniak B, Szaniecki J (1998) Roczn PZH 49:177–188Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Camuffo D, Brimlecombe P, Van Grieken R, Busse HJ, Sturraro G, Valentino A, Bernardi A, Blades N, Shooter D, De Bock L, Gysels K, Wiesen M, Kim O (1999) Sci Total Environ 236:135–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Røyset O (1998) Fresenius J Anal Chem 360:69–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Ayers GP, Keywood MD, Gillett R, Manins PC, Malfroy H, Bardsley T (1998) Atmos Environ 32:3587–3592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson A, Lindahl R, Levin JO, Karlsson D (1999) J Environ Monit 1:349–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    De Santis F, Allegrini I, Fazio MC, Pasella D, Piredda R (1997) Anal Chim Acta 346:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Baek SO, Kim YS, Perry R (1997) Atmos Environ 31:529–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Bytnerowicz A, Tausz M, Alonso R, Jones D, Johnson R, Grulke N (2002) Environ Pollut 118:187–203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Tompkins Jr FC, Goldsmith RL (1977) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 38:371–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Yamada E, Kimura M, Tomozawa K, Fuse Y, Yamada T (2000) Bull Chem Soc Jpn 73:1291–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Krochmal D, Kalina A (1997) Environ Pollut 96:401–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Krochmal D, Kalina A (1997) Atmos Environ 31:3473–3480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Grodzińska-Jurczak M, Szarek-Łukaszewska G (1999) Sci Total Environ 241:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Yang Y, Zhang XX, Korenaga T, Higuchi K (1997) Talanta 45:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Carmichael GR, Ferm M, Thongboonchoo N, Woo JH, Chan LY, Murano K, Viet PH, Mossberg C, Bala R, Boonjawat J, Upatum P, Mohan M, Adhikary SP, Shrestha AB, Pienaar JJ, Brunke EB, Chen T, Jie T, Guoan D, Peng LC, Dhiharto S, Harjanto H, Jose AM, Kimani W, Kirouane A, Lacaux JP, Richard S, Barturen O, Cerda JC, Athayde A, Tavares T, Cotrina JS, Bilici E (2003) Atmos Environ 37:1293–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Kasper-Giebl A, Krenn S, Puxbaum H (1999) Fresenius J Anal Chem 363:73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Rabaud NE, James TA, Ashbaugh LL, Flocchini RG (2001) Environ Sci Technol 35:1190–1196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Thöni L, Sietler E, Blatter A, Neftel A (2003) J Environ Monit 5:96–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Löflund M, Kasper-Giebl A, Stopper S, Urban H, Biebl P, Kirchner M, Braeutigam S, Puxbaum H (2002) J Environ Monit 4:205–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Valerio F, Pala M, Lazzarotto A, Balducci D (1997) Atmos Environ 31:2871–2876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Alm S, Mukala K, Tittanen P, Jantunen MJ (2001) Atmos Environ 35:6259–6266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Apte MG, Cox DD, Hammond SK, Gundel LA (1999) J Exposure Anal Environ Epidemiol 9:546–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Wood MJ, Surette RA, Mohindra JK, Patterson JG (1998) Health Phys 74:253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Shooter D, Watts SF, Hayes AJ (1995) Environ Monit Assess 38:11–23Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Copper CL, Callahan JH (2002) Talanta 58:823–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Kumagai S, Koda S (1999) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 60:458–462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Tanaka S, Yamauchi T, Takebayashi T, Omae K, Seki Y (1997) Ind Health 35:474–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Czarnowski W, Wielgomas B, Krechniak J (2002) Fluoride 35:22–27Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Parthasarathy N, Buffle J (1994) Anal Chim Acta 284:649–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Parthasarathy N, Pelletier M, Buffle J (1997) Anal Chim Acta 28350:183–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Kvietkus K, Sakalys J (1994) In: Watras CJ, Huckabee JW (eds) Mercury Pollution. Integration and Synthesis, Lewis PublisherGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Blom LB, Morrison GM, Roux MS, Mills G, Greenwood R (2003) J Environ Monit 5:404–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Chazin JD, Allen MK, Rodger BC (1995) Atmos Environ 29:1201–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    McCammon CS, Woodfin JW (1977) Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 38:378–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Utvik TIR, Durell GS, Johnsen S (1999) Mar Pollut Bull 38:977–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacek Namieśnik
    • 1
  • Bożena Zabiegała
    • 1
  • Agata Kot-Wasik
    • 1
  • Monika Partyka
    • 1
  • Andrzej Wasik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical FacultyGdansk University of TechnologyGdanskPoland

Personalised recommendations