Ultrasound-assisted extraction for the analysis of phenolic compounds in strawberries
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A semiautomatic method based on application of ultrasounds has been developed to leach and hydrolyse phenolic compounds, such as naringin, rutin, naringenin, ellagic acid, quercetin and kaempferol, from strawberries. Two grams of lyophilized sample was placed into a sample cell and 5 mL of acetone containing hydrochloric acid was added. The cell was immersed in a water bath and sonicated for 30 s (duty cycle 0.8 s, output amplitude 50% of the nominal amplitude of the converter, applied power 100 W and with the probe placed 2 cm from the top surface of the extraction cell) for three times: each time 5 mL extractant displaced the previous extract. When the extraction was completed, the combined extracts were evaporated for 10 min, diluted to 10 mL with water adjusted to pH 8, and transferred to a cleanup–preconcentration manifold; here the analytes were retained in two in-series minicolumns packed with HR-P sorbent and then eluted with 4 mL methanol, and injected for individual separation–quantitation into a chromatograph–photodiode array detector assembly. Optimisation of the extraction was carried out using samples spiked with 4 mg kg−1 of each analyte. Calibration curves using the standard addition in red strawberries typically gave linear dynamic ranges of 4–40 mg L−1 for all analytes, except for ellagic acid (40–400 mg L−1). The r2 values exceeded 0.98 in all cases.
KeywordsUltrasound-assisted extraction Flavonoids Flavonols
Spain’s Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICyT) is gratefully acknowledged for financial support (project BQU-2002-01333).
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