Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 378, Issue 1, pp 104–118 | Cite as

Current strategies for electrochemical detection of DNA with solid electrodes

  • Patricia de-los-Santos-Álvarez
  • M. Jesús Lobo-Castañón
  • Arturo J. Miranda-Ordieres
  • Paulino Tuñón-BlancoEmail author


A review of current strategies aimed at detecting nucleic acids (NA) using NA-modified solid electrodes reveals the versatility and potential of electrochemical detection in this field. What emerged at the beginning of 90s as a very promising detection system in DNA technology is now resulting in the first commercial devices. Many aspects of the experimental design, for example surface immobilisation and detection schemes, are outlined and evaluated. Although most approaches use hybridisation as the recognition reaction, those not based on hybridisation are also included. As is finally shown, great advances have been achieved, although further developments are required if electrochemical devices are to be suitable for routine measurement.


Electrochemical detection of NA DNA-modified electrodes Electrochemical mutation detection 





Alternating current voltammetry



Apo E

Apolipoprotein E


Brilliant cresyl blue


Bilayer lipid membrane


Base pairs


Basal planar pyrolytic graphite








Carbon paste electrode


Constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis




Carbon screen-printed electrode


Cyclic voltammetry








Differential pulse voltammetry


Double-stranded DNA


Ethidium bromide










Field-effect transistor




Glassy carbon electrode


Hepatitis B virus


Human growth hormone 1


Human immunodeficiency virus


Horseradish peroxidase


Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode


Intermittent pulse amperometry


Ion-selective field-effect transistor


Tin-doped indium oxide electrode


Linear sweep voltammetry


Au nanoparticles


Nucleotide monophosphate






Polymerase chain reaction


Poly(ethylene terephthalate)


Pyrolytic graphite electrode




Peptide nucleic acid




Pyrroline quinone glucose dehydrogenase




Self-assembled monolayer


Soybean peroxidase


Single nucleotide polymorphism


Single-stranded DNA


Square-wave voltammetry






TT virus


Difference of peak potential


  1. 1.
    Dangler CA (1996) (eds) Nucleic acid analysis. Principles and bioapplications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McGlennen RC (2001) Clin Chem 47:393–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Watterson J, Piunno PAE, Krull UJ (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang J (1998) Biosens Bioelectron 13:757–762Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boon EM, Barton JK, Pushpangadan I, Pradeepkumar PI, Isaksson J, Petit C, Chattopadhyaya J (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:3402–3405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Fernandes JR, Jiang M, López Paz JL, Waymire R, Nielsen TW, Getts RC (1998) Electroanalysis 10:553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mao L, Luo C, Ouyang Q (2003) Nucleic Acids Res 31:e108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fan C, Plaxco KW, Heeger AJ (2003) Proc Nat Acad Soc 100:9134–9137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herne TM, Tarlov MJ (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:8916–8920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pividori MI, Merkoçi A, Alegret S (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:291–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yang M, McGovern E, Thompson M (1997) Anal Chim Acta 346:259–275Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu L, Zhou J, Luo J, Lin Z (2000) Electrochim Acta 45:2923–2927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brett CBA, Brett AMO, Serrano SHP (1994) J Electroanal Chem 366:225–231Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang J, Fernandes JR, Kubota LT (1998) Anal Chem 70:3699–3702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhao YD, Pang DW, Wang ZL, Cheng JK, Qi YP (1997) J Electroanal Chem 431:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang J, Jiang M, Mukherjee B (2000) Bioelectrochemistry 52:111–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Armistead PM, Thorp HH (2000) Anal Chem 72:3764–3777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cai X, Rivas G, Farias PAM, Shiraishi H, Wang J, Palecek E (1996) Electroanalysis 8:753–758Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang HS, Ju HX, Chen HY (2002) Electroanalysis 14:1615–1620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xu J, Zhu JJ, Zhu Y, Gu K, Chen HY (2002) Anal Lett 34:503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lin X, Zheng S, Miao W, Jin B (2002) Anal Lett 35:1373–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang J, Cai X, Fernandes R, Grant DH, Ozsoz M (1997) Anal Chem 69:4056–4059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xu J, Zhu JJ, Huang Q, Chen HY (2001) Electrochem Commun 3:665–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramakrishnan V, Sable M, D’Costa M, Ganesh KN, Sastry M (2001) Chem Commun 2622–2623Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mbindyo J, Zhou L, Zhang Z, Stuart JD, Rusling JF (2000) Anal Chem 72:2059–2065CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li Z, Wang HD, Dong SJ, Wang EK (1997) Anal Sci 13:305–310Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang J, Jiang M, Fortes A, Mukherjee B (1999) Anal Chim Acta 402:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiang M, Wang J (2001) J Electroanal Chem 500:584–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xu C, Cai H, Xu Q, He PG, Fang YZ (2001) Fresenius J Anal Chem 369:428–432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kara P, Kerman K, Ozkan D, Meric B, Erdem A, Nielsen PE, Ozsoz M (2002) Electroanalysis 14:1685–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lemeshko SV, Powdrill T, Belosludtsev Y, Hogan M (2001) Nucleic Acids Res 29:3051–3058CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhou L, Rusling JF (2001) Anal Chem 73:4780–4786CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hu K, Pyati R, Bard AJ (1998) Anal Chem 70:2870–2875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang J, Bard AJ (2001) Anal Chem 73:2207–2212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thompson LA, Kowalik J, Josowicz M, Janata J (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:324–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu SQ, Xu JJ, Chen HY (2002) Bioelectrochemistry 57:149–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Siontorou CG, Nikolelis DP, Piunno PAE, Krull UJ (1997) Electroanalysis 9:1067–1071Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fajkus M, Hianik T (2002) Talanta 56:895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hianik T, Fajkus M, Sivak B, Rosenberg I, Kois P, Wang J (2000) Electroanalysis 12:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Siontorou CG, Oliveira Brett AM, Nikolelis DP (1996) Talanta 43:1137–1144Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    de Lumley-Woodyear T, Campbell CN, Freeman E, Freeman A, Gerogiou G, Heller A (1999) Anal Chem 71:535–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wojciechowski M, Sundseth R, Moreno M, Henkens R (1999) Clin Chem 45:1690–1693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huang TJ, Liu M, Knight LD, Grody WW, Miller JF, Ho CM (2002) Nucleic Acids Res 30:e55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ikebukuro K, Kohiki Y, Sode K (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:1075–1080Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Palanti S, Marrazza G, Mascini M (1996) Anal Lett 29:2309–2331Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Campbell CN, Gal D, Cristler N, Banditrat C, Heller A (2002) Anal Chem 74:158–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Okahata Y, Kawase M, Niikura K, Ohtake I, Furusawa H, Ebara Y (2002) Chem Commun 470–471Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yang F, Sadik OA (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:11335–11340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tombelli S, Mascini M, Turner APF (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:929–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gau J, Lan EH, Dunn B, Ho CM, Woo JCS (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:745–755CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dupont-Filliard A, Roget A, Livache T, Billon M (2001) Anal Chim Acta 449:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ihara T, Nakayama M, Murata M, Nakano K, Maeda M (1997) Chem Commun 1609–1610Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kelley SO, Barton JK, Jackson NM, Hill MG (1997) Bioconjugate Chem 8:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Levicky R, Herne TM, Tarlov MJ, Satija SK (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:9787–9892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kelley SO, Barton JK, Jackson NM, McPherson LD, Potter AB, Spain EM, Allen MJ, Hill MG (1998) Langmuir 14:6781–6784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Umek RM, Lin SW, Vielmetter J, Terbreueggen RH, Irvine B, Yu CJ, Kayyem JF, Yowanto H, Blackburn GF, Farkas DH, Chen YP (2001) J Mol Diag 3:74–84Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cai H, Xu C, He P, Fang Y (2001) J Electroanal Chem 510:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Millan KM, Saraullo A, Mikkelsen SR (1994) Anal Chem 66:2943–2948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Liu S, Ye J, He P, Fang Y (1996) Anal Chim Acta 335:239–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sun X, He P, Liu S, Ye J, Fang Y (1998) Talanta 47:487–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Popovich ND, Eckhardt AE, Mikulecky JC, Napier ME, Thomas RS (2002) Talanta 56:821–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Millan KM, Spurmanis AJ, Mikkelsen SR (1992) Electroanalysis 4:929–932Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    de Lumley-Woodyear T, Caruana GJ, Campbell CN, Heller A (1999) Anal Chem 71:394–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Moser I, Schalkhammer T, Pittner F, Urban G (1997) Biosens Bioelectron 12:729–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cloarec JP, Deligianis N, Martin JR, Lawrence I, Souteyrand E, Polychronakos C, Lawrence MF (2002) Biosens Bioelectron 17:405–412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lee TY, Shim YB (2001) Anal Chem 73:5629–5632CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Korri-Youssoufi H, Garnier F, Srivastava P, Godillot P, Yassar A (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:7388–7389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Korri-Youssoufi H, Makrouf B (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Csáki A, Möller R, Straube W, Köhler JM, Fritzsche W (2001) Nucleic Acids Res 29:e81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Casero E, Darder M, Díaz DJ, Pariente F, Martín-Gago JA, Abruña H, Lorenzo E (2003) Langmuir 19:6230–6235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Brown GM, Allison DP, Warmack RJ, Jacobson KB, Larimer FW, Woychik RP, Carrier WL (1991) Ultramicroscopy 38:253–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Petrovykh DY, Kimura-Suda H, Whitman LJ, Tarlov MJ (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:5219–5226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Peterson AW, Heaton RJ, Georgiadis RM (2001) Nucleic Acids Res 29:5163–5168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    (a) Mikkelsen SR (1996) Electroanalysis 8:15–19; (b) Wang J (1999) Chem Eur J 5:1681–1685; (c) Wang J (2000) Nucleic Acids Res 28:3011–3016; (d) Palecek E, Fojta M (2001) Anal Chem 73:75A–83A; (e) Wang J (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:63–71; (f) Gooding JJ (2002) Electroanalysis 14:1149–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Xu C, Cai H, He P, Fang Y (2001) Analyst 126:62–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Cai H, Wang Y, He P, Fang Y (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bagel O, Degrand Ch, Limoges B, Joannes M, Azek F, Brossier P (2000) Electroanalysis 12:1447–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Azek F, Grossiord C, Joannes M, Limoges B, Brossier P (2000) Anal Biochem 284:107–113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Pividori MI, Merkoçi A, Alegret S (2001) Analyst 126:1551–1557CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kung VT, Panfili PR, Sheldon EL, King RS, Nagainis PA, Gomez B Jr, Ross DA, Briggs J, Zuk RF (1990) Anal Biochem 187:220–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Alfonta L, Bardea A, Khersonsky O, Katz E, Willner I (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:675–687CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Alfonta L, Singh AK, Willner I (2001) Anal Chem 73:91–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Patolsky F, Katz E, Bardea A, Willner I (1999) Langmuir 15:3703–3706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Patolsky F, Lichtenstein A, Willner I (2000) Angew Chem Int Ed 39:940–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nakayama M, Ihara T, Nakano K, Maeda M (2002) Talanta 56:857–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yu CJ, Wan Y, Yowanto H, Li J, Tao C, James MD, Tan CL, Blackburn GF, Meade TJ (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:11155–11161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wang J, Kawde AN, Musameh M, Rivas G (2002) Analyst 127:1279–1282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Palecek E (2002) Talanta 56:809–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    de-los-Santos-Álvarez P, Lobo-Castañón MJ, Miranda-Ordieres AJ, Tuñón-Blanco P (2002) Anal Chem 74:3342–3347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wang J, Cai X, Wang J, Jonsson C, Palecek E (1995) Anal Chem 67:4065–4070Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wang J, Cai X, Jonsson C, Balakrishnan M (1996) Electroanalysis 8:20–24Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Singhal P, Kuhr WG (1997) Anal Chem 69:4828–4832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Li Q, Luo G, Feng J, Cai D, Ouyang Q (2000) Analyst 125:1908–1910CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wang J, Cai X, Tian B, Shiraishi H (1996) Analyst 121:965–970Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Meric B, Kerman K, Ozkan D, Kara P, Ozsoz M (2002) Electroanalysis 14:1245–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wang J, Kawde AN (2001) Anal Chim Acta 431:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Fernandes JR, López Paz JL, Jiang M, Waymire R (1998) Anal Chim Acta 375:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lucarelli F, Marrazza G, Palchetti I, Cesaretti S, Mascini M (2002) Anal Chim Acta 469:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wang J, Kawde AN, Erdem A, Salazar M (2001) Analyst 126:2020–2024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thorp HH (1998) Trends Biotechnol 16:117–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Popovich N (2001) IVD Technol 7:36–41Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yang IV, Thorp HH (2001) Anal Chem 73:5316–5322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Johnston DH, Glasgow KC, Thorp HH (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:8933–8938Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Napier ME, Loomis CR, Sistare MF, Kim J, Eckhardt AE, Thorp HH (1997) Bioconjugate Chem 8:906–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yang IV, Thorp HH (2001) Inorg Chem 40:1690–1698CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ropp PA, Thorp HH (1999) Chem Biol 6:599–605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yang IV, Ropp PA, Thorp HH (2002) Anal Chem 74:347–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Zeng J, Nikolelis DP, Krull UJ (1999) Electroanalysis 11:770–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Berney H, West J, Haefele E, Alderman J, Lane W, Collins JK (2000) Sens Actuators B 68:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Berggren C, Stålhandske P, Brundell J, Johansson G (1999) Electroanalysis 11:156–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Souteyrand E, Cloarec JP, Martin JR, Wilson C, Lawrence I, Mikkelsen S, Lawrence MF (1997) J Phys Chem 101:2980–2985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Marquette CA, Lawrence I, Polychronakos C, Lawrence MF (2002) Talanta 56:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Patolsky F, Lichtenstein A, Willner I (2001) J Am Chem Soc 123:5194–5205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bardea A, Patolsky F, Dagan A, Willner I (1999) Chem Commun 21–22Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Patolsky F, Lichtenstein A, Willner I (2001) Nat Biotechnol 19:253–257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Patolsky F, Lichtenstein A, Kotler M, Willner I (2001) Angew Chem Int Ed 40:2261–2265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Patolsky F, Katz E, Willner I (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:3398–3402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Aoki H, Bühlmann P, Umezawa Y (2000) Electroanalysis 12:1272–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Aoki H, Umezawa Y (2002) Electroanalysis 14:1405–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gooding JJ, Chou A, Mearns FJ, Wong E, Jericho KL (2003) Chem Commun 1938–1939Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Anne A, Bouchardon A, Moiroux J (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:1112–1113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Park SJ, Taton TA, Mirkin CA (2002) Science 295:1503–1509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Li J, Xue M, Wang H, Cheng L, Gao L, Lu Z, Chan M (2003) Analyst 128:917–923CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Urban M, Möller R, Fritzsche W (2003) Rev Sci Instrum 74:1077–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Yang W, Ozsoz M, Hibbert DB, Gooding JJ (2002) Electroanalysis 14:1299–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Erdem A, Kerman K, Meric B, Akarca US, Ozsoz M (2000) Anal Chim Acta 422:139–149Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hashimoto K, Ito K, Ishimori Y (1994) Anal Chim Acta 286:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hashimoto K, Ito K, Ishimori Y (1994) Anal Chem 66:3830–3833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hashimoto K, Ito K, Ishimori Y (1998) Sens Actuators B 46:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tani A, Thomson AJ, Butt JN (2001) Analyst 126:1756–1759CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wang J, Palecek E, Nielsen PE, Rivas G, Cai X, Shiraishi H, Dontha N, Luo D, Farias PAM (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:7667–7670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Cai X, Dontha N, Shiraishi H, Luo D, Valera FS (1997) Anal Chim Acta 337:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ozkan D, Kara P, Kerman K, Meric B, Erdem A, Jelen F, Nielsen PE, Ozsoz, M (2002) Bioelectrochemistry 58:119–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Marrazza G, Chiti G, Mascini M, Anichini M (2000) Clin Chem 46:31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Takenaka S, Yamashita K, Takagi M, Uto Y, Kondo H (2000) Anal Chem 72:1334–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Miyahara H, Yamashita K, Kanai M, Uchida K, Takagi M, Kondo H, Takenaka S (2002) Talanta 56:829–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Yamashita K, Takagi M, Kondo H, Takenaka S (2002) Anal Biochem 306:188–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kelley SO, Boon EM, Barton JK, Jackson NM, Hill MG (1999) Nucleic Acids Res 27:4830–4837CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Boon EM, Ceres DM, Drummond TG, Hill MG, Barton JK (2000) Nat Biotechnol 18:1096–1100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    de-los-Santos-Álvarez P, Rodríguez-Granda P, Lobo-Castañón MJ, Miranda-Ordieres AJ, Tuñón-Blanco P (2003) Electrochem Commun 5:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    de-los-Santos-Álvarez P, Lobo-Castañón MJ, Miranda-Ordieres AJ, Tuñón-Blanco P (2003) submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wang J, Cai X, Rivas G, Shiraishi H, Farias PAM, Dontha N (1996) Anal Chem 68:2629–2634Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wang J, Cai X, Rivas G, Shiraishi H (1996) Anal Chim Acta 326:141–147Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Parrado C, Cai X, Flair MN (1997) Talanta 44:2003–2010Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Cai X, Chicharro M, Parrado C, Dontha N, Begleiter A, Mowa M, Palecek E, Nielsen PE (1997) Anal Chim Acta 344:111–118Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Erdem A, Kerman K, Meric V, Akarca US, Ozsoz M (1999) Electroanalysis 11:586–588Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Millan KM, Mikkelsen SR (1993) Anal Chem 65:2317–2323Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wang J, Rivas G, Cai X (1997) Electroanalysis 9:395–398Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Maruyama K, Motonaka J, Mishima Y, Matsuzaki Y, Nakabayashi I, Nakabayashi, Y (2001) Sens Actuators B 76:215–219Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Maruyama K, Mishima Y, Minagawa K, Motonaka J (2002) Anal Chem 74:3698–3703Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hassmann J, Misch A, Schülein J, Krause J, Gral B, Müller P, Bertling WM (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:857–863Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Fojta M, Havran L, Kizek R, Billová S (2002) Talanta 56:867–874Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Yan F, Erdem A, Meric B, Kerman K, Ozsoz M, Sadik OA (2001) Electrochem Commun 3:224–228Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Marrazza G, Chianella I, Mascini M (1999) Anal Chim Acta 387:297–307Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Marrazza GA, Chianella I, Mascini M (1999) Biosens Bioelectron 14:43–51Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fan CH, Li GX, Gu QR, Zhu JQ, Zhu DX (2000) Anal Lett 33:1479–1490Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lee TMH, Hsing IM (2002) Anal Chem 74:5057–5062Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Meric B, Kerman K, Ozkan D, Kara P, Erensoy S, Akarca US, Mascini M, Ozsoz M (2002) Talanta 56:837–846Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kerman K, Ozkan D, Kara P, Meric B, Gooding JJ, Ozsoz M (2002) Anal Chim Acta 462:39–47Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Gu J, Lu X, Ju H (2002) Electroanalysis 14:949–954Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hashimoto K, Miwa K, Goto M, Ishimori Y (1993) Supramol Chem 2:265–270Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kertesz V, Whittemore NA, Chambers JQ, McKinney MS, Baker DC (2000) J Electroanal Chem 493:28–36Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Takenaka S, Uto Y, Saita H, Yokoyama M, Kondo H, Wilson, WD (1998) Chem Commun 1111–1112Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Peng T, Cheng Q, Cheng Q (2002) Electroanalysis 14:455–458Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ihara T, Maruo Y, Takenaka S, Takagi M (1996) Nucleic Acids Res 24:4273–4280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Brazill SA, Kim PH, Kuhr WG (2001) Anal Chem 73:4882–4890CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wlassoff WA, King GC (2002) Nucleic Acids Res 30:e58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Weizman H, Tor Y (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:1568–1569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Kertesz V, Whittemore NA, Inamati GB, Manoharan M, Cook PD, Baker DC, Chambers JQ (2000) Electroanalysis 12:889–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Xu C, He P, Fang Y (2000) Anal Chim Acta 411:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Patolsky F, Weizmann Y, Willner I (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:770–772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Zhu N, Cai H, He P, Fang Y (2003) Anal Chim Acta 481:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Cai H, Xu Y, Zhu N, He P, Fang Y (2002) Analyst 127:803–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wang J, Rincón O, Polsky R, Domínguez E (2003) Electrochem Commun 5:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Wang J, Wu D, Polsky R (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:4208–4209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Fojta M, Havran L, Kizek R, Billová S (2002) Talanta 56:867–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Fojta M, Havran L, Billová S, Kostecka P, Masarik M, Kizek R (2003) Electroanalysis 15:431–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    de Lumley-Woodyear T, Campbell CN, Heller A (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:5504–5505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Pividori MI, Merkoçi A, Alegret S (2001) Biosens Bioelectron 16:1133–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Xu D, Huang K, Liu Z, Liu Y, Ma L (2001) Electroanalysis 13:882–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Caruana DJ, Heller A (1999) J Am Chem Soc 121:769–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Brazill SA, Kuhr WG (2002) Anal Chem 74:3421–3428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Finot E, Bourillot E, Meunier-Prest R, Lacroute Y, Legay G, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Latruffe N, Siri O, Braunstein P, Dereux A (2003) Ultramicroscopy 97:441–449CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Zhang Y, Kim HH, Heller A (2003) Anal Chem 75:3267–3269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Albers J, Grunwald T, Nebling E, Piechotta G, Hintsche R (2003) Anal Bioanal Chem 377:521–527CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Lee TMH, Carles MC, Hsing IM (2003) Lab on a chip 3:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia de-los-Santos-Álvarez
    • 1
  • M. Jesús Lobo-Castañón
    • 1
  • Arturo J. Miranda-Ordieres
    • 1
  • Paulino Tuñón-Blanco
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Física y AnalíticaUniversidad de OviedoOviedoSpain

Personalised recommendations