Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 377, Issue 3, pp 486–495

Biological application of microelectrode arrays in drug discovery and basic research

  • Alfred Stett
  • Ulrich Egert
  • Elke Guenther
  • Frank Hofmann
  • Thomas Meyer
  • Wilfried Nisch
  • Hugo Haemmerle
Review

Abstract

Electrical activity of electrogenic cells in neuronal and cardiac tissue can be recorded by means of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) that offer the unique possibility for non-invasive extracellular recording from as many as 60 sites simultaneously. Since its introduction 30 years ago, the technology and the related culture methods for electrophysiological cell and tissue assays have been continually improved and have found their way into many academic and industrial laboratories. Currently, this technology is attracting increased interest owing to the industrial need to screen selected compounds against ion channel targets in their native environment at organic, cellular, and sub-cellular level.

As the MEA technology can be applied to any electrogenic tissue (i.e., central and peripheral neurons, heart cells, and muscle cells), the MEA biosensor is an ideal in vitro system to monitor both acute and chronic effects of drugs and toxins and to perform functional studies under physiological or induced pathophysiological conditions that mimic in vivo damages. By recording the electrical response of various locations on a tissue, a spatial map of drug effects at different sites can be generated, providing important clues about a drug's specificity.

In this survey, examples of MEA biosensor applications are described that have been developed for drug screening and discovery and safety pharmacology in the field of cardiac and neural research. Additionally, biophysical basics of recording and concepts for analysis of extracellular electrical signals are presented.

Keywords

Drug discovery Safety pharmacology Organotypic tissue culture Cell culture Ion channel Microelectrode array Field potential Electrophysiology 

Abbreviations

AP

action potential

DG

dentate gyrus

EC

entorhinal cortex

ECG

electrocardiogram

ERG

electroretinogram

LFP

local field potentials

MEA

microelectrode array

PSTH

peri-stimulus–time histogram

SNR

signal-to-noise ratio

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Stett
    • 1
  • Ulrich Egert
    • 2
  • Elke Guenther
    • 1
  • Frank Hofmann
    • 1
  • Thomas Meyer
    • 3
  • Wilfried Nisch
    • 1
  • Hugo Haemmerle
    • 1
  1. 1.NMI Naturwissenschaftliches und Medizinisches Institut an der Universität TübingenReutlingenGermany
  2. 2.Neurobiology and Biophysics, Institute for Biology IIIAlbert-Ludwigs University FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Multi Channel Systems MCS GmbHReutlingenGermany

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