Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 377, Issue 3, pp 469–477 | Cite as

Array biosensor for detection of toxins

  • Frances S. LiglerEmail author
  • Chris Rowe Taitt
  • Lisa C. Shriver-Lake
  • Kim E. Sapsford
  • Yura Shubin
  • Joel P. Golden


The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL−1.


Biosensor Immunosensor Array Multi-analyte Toxin Detection 



This work was supported by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Office of Naval Research, NASA, and USDA (award number 2002-35201-12472). The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not reflect opinion or policy of the US government, NASA, USDA, the US Navy, or the US Department of Defense.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frances S. Ligler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chris Rowe Taitt
    • 1
  • Lisa C. Shriver-Lake
    • 1
  • Kim E. Sapsford
    • 2
  • Yura Shubin
    • 3
  • Joel P. Golden
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  3. 3.Geo-Centers Inc.LanhamUSA

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