Advertisement

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 377, Issue 3, pp 469–477 | Cite as

Array biosensor for detection of toxins

  • Frances S. LiglerEmail author
  • Chris Rowe Taitt
  • Lisa C. Shriver-Lake
  • Kim E. Sapsford
  • Yura Shubin
  • Joel P. Golden
Review

Abstract

The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL−1.

Keywords

Biosensor Immunosensor Array Multi-analyte Toxin Detection 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Office of Naval Research, NASA, and USDA (award number 2002-35201-12472). The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not reflect opinion or policy of the US government, NASA, USDA, the US Navy, or the US Department of Defense.

References

  1. 1.
    Federation of American Scientists Special weapons primerhttp://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/bw/agent.htm
  2. 2.
    Sweeney MJ, White S, Dobson ADW (2000) Irish J Agric Food Res 29:235–244Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Richard JL, Fleetwood K (Dec 2001–Jan 2002) Food Saf Mag, pp 18–21Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balaban N, Rasooly A (2000) Int J Food Microbiol 61:1–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van Emon JM, Gerlach CL (1996) ACS Symp Ser 646:2–8Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aga DS, Thurman EM (1997) ACS Symp Ser 657:1–20Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schneider RJ (2003) Anal Bioanal Chem 375:44–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Craig H, Ferguson G, Markos A, Kusterbeck A, Shriver-Lake L, Jenkins T, Thorne P (1996) Field proceedings of the great plains- rocky mountain hazardous substance research center (HSRC)/waste education and research consortium (WERC) Joint Conference on the Environment, p 204Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crockett AB, Craig HD, Jenkins TF (1999) Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in water, EPA/600/S-99/002. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kusterbeck AW, Charles PT (1998) Field Anal Chem Technol 2:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lan EH, Dunn B, Zink JI (2000) Chem Mater 12:1874–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pohland AE, Trucksess MW, Page SW (1990) ACS Symp Ser 442:38–50Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ekins R, Chu F, Biggart E (1990) Clin Chim Acta 194:91–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ekins R, Chu F (1993) Clin Chem 39:369–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abel AP, Weller MG, Duveneck GL, Ehrat M, Widmer HM (1996) Anal Chem 68:2905–2912CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herron JN, Christensen DA, Wang H-K, Caldwell KD, Janatova V, Huang S-C (1997) US Patent 5 677 196Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berger CEH, Beumer TAM, Kooyman RPH, Greve J (1998) Anal Chem 70:703–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blawas AS, Oliver TF, Pirrung MC, Reichert WM (1998) Langmuir 14:4243–4250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brecht A, Klotz A, Barzen C, Gauglitz G, Harris RD, Quigley GR, Wilkinson JS, Sztajnbok P, Abuknesha R, Gascon J, Oubina A, Barcelo D (1998) Anal Chim Acta 362:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anderson GP, King KD, Gaffney KL, Johnson LH, (1999) Biosens Bioelectron 14:771–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lingerfelt BM, Taitt CR, Anderson GP. Sensor Lett, submitted for publicationGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Silzel JW, Cercek B, Dodson C, Tsay T, Obremski RJ (1998) Clin Chem 44:2036–2043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wadkins RM, Golden JP, Ligler FS (1997) J Biomed Optics 2:74–79Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wadkins RM, Golden JP, Pritsiolas LM, Ligler FS (1998) Biosens Bioelectron 13:407–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Plowman TE, Durstchi JD, Wang HK, Christensen DA, Herron JN, Reichert WM (1999) Anal Chem 71:4344–4352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rowe CA, Scruggs SB, Feldstein MJ, Golden JP, Ligler FS (1999) Anal Chem 71:433–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowe CA, Tender LM, Feldstein MJ, Golden JP, Scruggs SB, MacCraith BD, Cras JJ, Ligler FS (1999) Anal Chem 71:3846–3852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rowe-Taitt CA, Hazzard JW, Hoffman KE, Cras JJ, Golden JP, Ligler FS (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:579–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bernard A, Michel B, Delamarche E (2001) Anal Chem 73:8–12Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taitt CR, Anderson GP, Lingerfelt BM, Feldstein MJ, Ligler FS (2002) Anal Chem 74:6114–6120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sapsford KE, Charles PT, Patterson Jr CH, Ligler FS (2002) Anal Chem 74:1061–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Golden JP, Shubin YS, Shriver-Lake LC, Delehanty JB, Sapsford KE, Rowe-Taitt CA, Ligler FS (2003) Proc SPIE 4958, in pressGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kusterbeck AW, Charles P, Patterson C, Gauger P (2000) Curr Protocol Field Anal Chem 2C11.1–2C11.14Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Narang U, Anderson GP, Ligler FS, Burans J (1997) Biosens Bioelectron 12:937–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anderson GP, King KD, Cuttino DS, Whelan JP, Ligler FS, MacKrell JR, Bovais CS, Indyke DK, Foch RJ (1999) Field Anal Chem Technol 3:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cras JJ, Rowe CA, Nivens D, Ligler FS (1999) Biosens Bioelectron 14:683–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Feldstein MJ, Golden JP, Rowe CA, MacCraith BD, Ligler FS (1999) J Biomed Microdevices 1:139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Golden JP (1998) US Patent 5 827 748Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sapsford KE, Liron Z, Shubin YS, Ligler FS (2001) Anal Chem 73:5518–5524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rowe-Taitt CA, Golden JP, Feldstein MJ, Cras JJ, Hoffman KE, Ligler FS (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 14:785–794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rogers KR, Valdes JJ, Eldefrawi ME (1989) Anal Biochem 182:353–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rogers KR, Cao CJ, Valdes JJ, Eldefrawi AT, Eldefrawi ME (1991) Fund Appl Toxicol 16:810–820Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rogers KR, Fernando JC, Thompson RG, Valdes JJ, Eldefrawi ME (1992) Anal Biochem 202:111–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Charych D, Cheng Q, Reichert WM, Kuziemko G, Stroh M, Nagy JO, Spevak W, Stevens RC (1996) Chem Biol 3:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    James EA, Schmeltzer K, Ligler FS (1996) Appl Biochem Biotechnol 60:189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Song X, Swanson BI (1999) Anal Chem 71:2097–2107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bachmann TT, Leca B, Villatte F, Marty J-L, Fournier D, Schmid RD (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:193–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fisher MI, Tjarnhage T (2000) Biosens Bioelectron 15:463–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Peng T, Cheng Q, Stevens RC (2000) Anal Chem 72:1611–1617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Singh AK, Harrison SH, Schoeniger JS (2000) Anal Chem 72:6019–6024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Song X, Shi J, Nolan J, Swanson B (2001) Anal Biochem 291:133–141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stenger DA, Gross GW, Keefer EW, Shaffer KM, Andreadis JD, Ma W, Pancrazio JJ (2001) Trends Biotechnol 19:304–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Devic E, Li D, Dauta A, Henriksen P, Codd GA, Marty J-L, Fournier D (2002) Appl Environ Microbiol 68:4102–4106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Villatte F, Schulze H, Schmid RD, Bachmann TT (2002) Anal Bioanal Chem 372:322–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alfonta L, Willner I, Throckmorton JD, Singh AK (2001) Anal Chem 73:5287–5295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liebau M, Hildebrand A, Neubert RH (2001) Eur Biophys J 30:42–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rowe-Taitt CA, Cras JJ, Patterson CH, Golden JP, Ligler FS (2000) Anal Biochem 281:123–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lonnroth I, Holmgren J (1973) J Gen Microbiol 76:417–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fishman PH, Moss J, Osborn JC Jr (1978) Biochemistry 17:711–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vabulas R, Bittlingmaier R, Heeg K, Wagner H, Miethke T (1996) Infect Immun 64:4567–4573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brown, BA (1984) Hematology: principles and procedures, 4th edn. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bergdoll MS (1989) In: Doyle MP (ed) Foodborne bacterial pathogens. Dekker, New York, pp 463–523Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Humphreys H, Keane CT, Hone R, Pomeroy H, Russell RJ, Arbuthnot JP, Coleman DC (1989) J Med Microbiol 28:163–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Soto A, Saldias ME, Oviedo P, Fernandez M (1996) Rev Med Chil 124:1142–1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schroder E, Kunstmann G, Hasbach H, Pulverer G (1988) Zbl Bakt Hyg A 270:110–114Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ulrich RG, Sidell S, Taylor TJ, Wilhelmsen CL, Franz DR (1997) In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR (eds) Textbook of military medicine: medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, chap 31Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tempelman LS, King KD, Anderson GP, Ligler FS (1996) Anal Biochem 223:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Shriver-Lake LC, Shubin YS, Ligler FS (2003) J Food Protect, in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frances S. Ligler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chris Rowe Taitt
    • 1
  • Lisa C. Shriver-Lake
    • 1
  • Kim E. Sapsford
    • 2
  • Yura Shubin
    • 3
  • Joel P. Golden
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Code 6900Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  3. 3.Geo-Centers Inc.LanhamUSA

Personalised recommendations