On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry
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An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP–OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)–2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 °C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L−1 nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1, directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 μg L−1. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 μg L−1 Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 μg L−1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine.
KeywordsOn-line preconcentration Dysprosium Cloud point extraction
This work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (FONCYT) (PICT-BID), and Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina).
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