Theoretical Chemistry Accounts

, 136:139 | Cite as

Revealing strong interactions with the reduced density gradient: a benchmark for covalent, ionic and charge-shift bonds

  • Roberto A. Boto
  • Jean-Philip Piquemal
  • Julia Contreras-García
Regular Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. First European Symposium on Chemical Bonding


The visualization of covalent interactions has been a common practice in theoretical chemistry thanks to the electron localization function (ELF). More recently, the reduced density gradient (RDG) has been introduced as a tool for revealing non-covalent interactions. Along reactions, interactions change from weak to strong and vice versa. Thus, a tool enabling to analyze all of them simultaneously is fundamental for reactivity studies. This contribution is aimed at filling this gap within the NCI approach. We will highlight the ability of RDG to reveal also strong interactions and produce a benchmark that covers covalent, ionic and charge-shift bonds. The ability of the NCI descriptor to differentiate among them will be highlighted.


Visualization Reduced density gradient Strong interactions NCI 



We are grateful to the reviewers of our paper for their careful reading and helping to improve this manuscript. This work was supported partially by the framework of CALSIMLAB under the public grant ANR-11-LABX-0037-01 overseen by the French National Research Agency (ANR) as part of the “Investissements d’Avenir” program (reference: ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto A. Boto
    • 1
  • Jean-Philip Piquemal
    • 2
    • 3
  • Julia Contreras-García
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.CICECO - Aveiro Institute of MaterialsUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie ThéoriqueSorbonne Universités, UPMC Universités Paris 06ParisFrance
  3. 3.CNRSUMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie ThéoriqueParisFrance

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