What makes differences between intra- and inter-molecular charge transfer excitations in conjugated long-chained polyene? EOM-CCSD and LC-BOP study
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We performed intra- and inter-molecular charge transfer (CT) excitation calculations of H2N–(CH=CH) n –NO2 (a) and its equidistant H2N–H···H–NO2 (b) using EOM-CCSD (n = 1–9), time-dependent (TD) long-range corrected (LC) density functional theory (DFT) (n = 1–10). It was shown that LC-BOP and LCgau-BOP outperform all the tested DFT functionals on inter- and intra-CT excitation energy and oscillator strength, regardless of CT interaction distance (R). Decomposition of TD-DFT optical excitation energies of (a) and (b) into HOMO–LUMO gap and excitonic binding energy disclosed that HOMO–LUMO gap reduction resulting from delocalization of HOMO and LUMO through bridged polyene conjugation is mainly responsible for the decreasing of intra-molecular CT excitation energy with chain number, while inter-molecular CT increases linearly with −1/R, which is wholly due to the decrease in excitonic energy between HOMO and LUMO. We found that success of exchange correlation functional on long-distanced intra-molecular CT calculations depends on correct descriptions of (1) Koopmans’ energy of donor and acceptor and (2) excitonic energy between donor and acceptor, and (3) correct far-nucleus asymptotic behavior, −1/R. We found that LC scheme can satisfy (3), but needs an appropriate choice of long-range parameter able to satisfy (1) and (2). On the other hand, the pure, conventional hybrid, and screened hybrid functionals show near-zero intra- and inter-molecular excitonic energy regardless of R, which means optical band gap coincide with HOMO–LUMO gap. Therefore, we conclude that 100 % long-range Hartree–Fock exchange inclusion is indispensable for correct descriptions of intra-molecular CT excitations as well as inter-molecular CT.
KeywordsRange separation Long-range corrected DFT Charge transfer excitation TD-DFT HOMO–LUMO gap Excitonic energy LC-DFT
We would like to pay honors to Prof. Dunning for his great achievements. This research was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant Number 23225001. The numerical calculations were conducted on the RIKEN Cluster of Clusters (RICC).
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