Theoretical Chemistry Accounts

, Volume 130, Issue 4–6, pp 1211–1220 | Cite as

A Rheumatoid arthritis study using Raman spectroscopy

  • C. S. Carvalho
  • A. A. Martin
  • A. M. E. Santo
  • L. E. C. Andrade
  • M. M. Pinheiro
  • M. A. G. Cardoso
  • L. Raniero
Regular Article

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints and can lead to a progressive destruction of articular cartilage and bone. In this study, the specificity and sensitivity of the RA diagnostic methods based on the receiver-operating characteristic curves for monitoring C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were compared with the Raman spectroscopic diagnostic method developed in this work. Sera from 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and from 16 healthy individuals were analyzed to assess the biochemical composition and presence of inflammatory activity by the aforementioned methods. By comparing with the clinical results for specificity and sensitivity from the RF and CRP tests, we show that the overall results from the newly developed Raman method were significantly better, with a specificity of 96%, a sensitivity of 88%, and correctly identifying 92% of the RA and healthy individuals, while the RF test gave a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 54%, and the CRP test gave a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 58%, respectively.

Keywords

Confocal Raman Rheumatoid arthritis Serum 

Abbreviations

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

CRP

C-reactive protein

RF

Rheumatoid factor

ACR

American College of Rheumatology

APPs

Acute-phase proteins

NCCLS

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory and Approved Standards

CCD

Charge-coupled device

CaF2

Calcium fluoride

PCA

Principal components analysis

PC

Principal component

ROC

Receiver-operating characteristic

KS

Kolmogorov and Smirnov

TC

Total cholesterol

r

Correlation coefficient

TG

Total triglycerides

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LDA

Linear discriminant analysis

UniFeSP

Universidade Federal de São Paulo

LEVB

Vibrational biomedical spectroscopy laboratory

UniVaP

Universidade do Vale do Paraíba

IP&D

Institute for Research and Development

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to patients help donating the samples and also for the great contribution and scientific discussion of the referees.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Carvalho
    • 1
  • A. A. Martin
    • 1
  • A. M. E. Santo
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. E. C. Andrade
    • 3
  • M. M. Pinheiro
    • 3
  • M. A. G. Cardoso
    • 1
  • L. Raniero
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biomedical Vibrational SpectroscopyUniversidade do Vale do ParaíbaSão José dos CamposBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da TerraUniversidade Federal de São PauloDiademaBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Medicina, Divisão de ReumatologiaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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