Evaluation of anti-cocaine antibodies and a cocaine vaccine in a rat self-administration model
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Rationale: Previous pre-clinical studies with an anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody left open several issues critical to assessing the effectiveness of a vaccine for altering cocaine self-administration behavior. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine, first, whether changes in self-administration behavior would be systematically related to antibody level and, second, how the antibody affected the self-administration of different doses of cocaine. Methods: Two experiments were conducted using a second-order schedule of drug delivery in rats. The first was a passive-administration study using the anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody MO240 to examine the relationship between antibody level and cocaine self-administration behavior, and the second was an active-immunization study to examine the efficacy of the cocaine vaccine IPC-1010 for blocking various doses of self-administered cocaine. Results: The passive-administration experiment with control and 4-mg or 12-mg MO240 treatments showed that antagonism of the 1 mg/kg cocaine training dose was dependent on antibody level. In animals whose serum antibody levels were sustained above 0.05 mg/ml, there was a sufficient amount of antibody to reduce drug-seeking behavior and drug intake. In the active-immunization experiment, the cocaine vaccine IPC-1010 induced average serum antibody levels of 0.08 mg/ml and reduced the reacquisition of behavior by 1 mg/kg cocaine. Antagonism of cocaine self-administration after immunization was evident across a range of doses of cocaine and was only apparent in animals whose serum antibody levels exceeded 0.05 mg/ml. Furthermore, there was no evidence that the antagonism was surmountable within the dose range examined (up to 5.6 mg/kg). Conclusions: Antagonism of cocaine self-administration across a range of doses is feasible after immunization with a cocaine vaccine as long as antibody levels are of a sufficient concentration.
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