St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): a review of the current pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical literature
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Rationale: St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has recently gained popularity as an alternative treatment for mild to moderate depression. Given the current widespread use of this herbal remedy, it is important for medical professionals to understand the potential pharmacological pathways through which Hypericum may exert an antidepressant effect. Objectives: (1) To review the current pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical literature available on Hypericum, and (2) to provide a synthesis of this information into a form that may be easily used by health care providers. Method: A comprehensive review of the recent scientific literature (January 1990–March 2000) was performed using the following electronic databases and reference publications: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, HealthSTAR, Current Contents (all editions), European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy monographs, German Commission E monographs, and the Physicians' Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, 1st edition. Results: One hundred and seven (107) publications in the English language and three publications in German were included in the review. Collectively, the data suggest that therapeutic preparations of Hypericum extract appear to exert potentially significant pharmacological activity within several neurochemical systems believed to be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. However, little information exists regarding the safety of Hypericum, including potential herb–drug interactions. Conclusions: Additional research on the pharmacological and biochemical activity of Hypericum and its several bioactive constituents is necessary to further elucidate the mode(s) of antidepressant action. Given what is currently known and unknown about the biological properties of Hypericum, those who choose to use this herb should be closely monitored by a physician.
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