Association between the serotonin 2C receptor gene and tardive dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia: additive contribution of 5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly alleles to susceptibility
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Rationale: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a long-term adverse effect of dopamine receptor blockers. The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) ser9gly polymorphism has been previously associated with susceptibility to TD. Serotonin receptor antagonism has been proposed as a common mechanism contributing to the low extrapyramidal effects profile of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Objectives: To examine the association of a functional polymorphism in the 5-HT2C receptor gene (HT2CR) with TD and the joint contribution of HT2CR and DRD3 to susceptibility. Methods: Case control association analysis of allele and genotype frequencies among schizophrenia patients with (n=55) and without TD (n=60), matched for antipsychotic drug exposure and other relevant variables, and normal control subjects (n=97). Parametric analyses of the contribution of 5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly alleles to dyskinesia scores. Results: We found a significant excess of 5-HT2Cser alleles in schizophrenia patients with TD (27.2%) compared to patients without TD (14.6%) and normal controls (14.2%; χ2=6.4, df 2, P=0.03) which was due to the female patients (χ2=8.6, df 2, P=0.01). Among the female TD patients there was an excess of cys-ser and ser-ser genotypes (χ2=11.9, df 4, P=0.02). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age at first antipsychotic treatment, revealed a significant effect of 5-HT2C genotype on orofacial dyskinesia (OFD) scores (F=3.47, df 2, P=.03). In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, 5-HT2C and DRD3 genotype (5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly allele carriage) respectively contributed 4.2% and 4.7% to the variance in OFD scores. Conclusions: These findings support a small but significant contribution of the HT2CR and DRD3 to susceptibility to TD, which is additive in nature.
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