A reply to Henningfield, Fant & Wang (2018): regulatory action to control kratom is long overdue

  • David V. GauvinEmail author
  • Zachary J. Zimmermann

In summarizing their 8 Factor Analysis (8FA), Henningfield et al. (2018) concluded that (1) kratom products are legitimately marketed as dietary supplements; (2) there has been no documented threat to public health that would appear to warrant emergency scheduling of the products; and (3) placement in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) carries risks of creating serious public health problems. Contrary to these conclusions, we highlight the fact that kratom products are entourage substances that induce significant central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS) effects usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of over 40 different alkaloids in the plant material (for example, alpha and delta yohimbine, speciophylline; refer to Tantisewie and Ruchirawat 1992). Under the US Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&CA), kratom, sold as dietary supplements, is considered adulterated because the product contains new dietary ingredients that lack...


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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurobehavioral Sciences Department, Abuse Liability and OtotoxicityMPI Research (A Charles River Company)MattawanUSA

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