Serum galectin-3, but not galectin-1, levels are elevated in schizophrenia: implications for the role of inflammation
- 295 Downloads
Previous studies have reported that galectin-3 is involved in inflammatory processes in the central nervous system and that neuroinflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the link between schizophrenia and various galectins is unclear.
The objective of the present study is to determine whether galectin, a well-known lectin protein that binds to μ-galactoside, is associated with chronic schizophrenia.
Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls participated in this study. Schizophrenia symptoms were assessed using the Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale (BPRS). Serum galectin-1 and galectin-3 levels were evaluated using ELISA and compared between the participant groups. Correlation analyses were also performed to examine the relationship between BPRS scores and each galectin level.
Serum galectin-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than they were in controls (p = 0.009, d = 0.640); however, serum galectin-1 levels were not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.513). No significant correlation was identified between serum galectin-3 level and the total BPRS score; however, a significant positive correlation was found between the serum galectin-3 level and the positive symptom score of the BPRS (ρ = 0.355; p = 0.033). Additionally, a significant negative correlation was identified between serum galectin-3 levels and the negative symptom score of the BPRS (ρ = −0.387; p = 0.020).
Given the high serum levels of galectin-3 found in patients with schizophrenia compared with that in controls, these findings may support the inflammation hypothesis of schizophrenia.
KeywordsGalectin-1 Galectin-3 Schizophrenia Neuroinflammation Serum Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale
The authors thank all of the staff in the affiliated hospitals of Kyushu University (Hakomatsu Hospital, Kawazoe Hospital, and Imajuku Hospital) for recruiting the participants.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, Japan. Informed written consent was obtained from each participant after they were given information about the study.
This study was funded by grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (25870494 to K. Kajitani).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Alves CM, Silva DA, Azzolini AE, Marzocchi-Machado CM, Carvalho JV, Pajuaba AC, Lucisano-Valim YM, Chammas R, Liu FT, Roque-Barreira MC, Mineo JR (2010) Galectin-3 plays a modulatory role in the life span and activation of murine neutrophils during early Toxoplasma gondii infection. Immunobiology 215:475–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arai M, Yuzawa H, Nohara I, Ohnishi T, Obata N, Iwayama Y, Haga S, Toyota T, Ujike H, Arai M, Ichikawa T, Nishida A, Tanaka Y, Furukawa A, Aikawa Y, Kuroda O, Niizato K, Izawa R, Nakamura K, Mori N, Matsuzawa D, Hashimoto K, Iyo M, Sora I, Matsushita M, Okazaki Y, Yoshikawa T, Miyata T, Itokawa M (2010) Enhanced carbonyl stress in a subpopulation of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:589–597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bloomfield PS, Selvaraj S, Veronese M, Rizzo G, Bertoldo A, Owen DR, Bloomfield MA, Bonoldi I, Kalk N, Turkheimer F, McGuire P, de Paola V, Howes OD (2016) Microglial activity in people at ultra high risk of psychosis and in schizophrenia: an [(11)C]PBR28 PET brain imaging study. Am J Psychiatry 173:44–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brook S, Walden J, Benattia I, Siu CO, Romano SJ (2005) Ziprasidone and haloperidol in the treatment of acute exacerbation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: comparison of intramuscular and oral formulations in a 6-week, randomized, blinded-assessment study. Psychopharmacology 178:514–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burguillos MA, Svensson M, Schulte T, Boza-Serrano A, Garcia-Quintanilla A, Kavanagh E, Santiago M, Viceconte N, Oliva-Martin MJ, Osman AM, Salomonsson E, Amar L, Persson A, Blomgren K, Achour A, Englund E, Leffler H, Venero JL, Joseph B, Deierborg T (2015) Microglia-secreted galectin-3 acts as a toll-like receptor 4 ligand and contributes to microglial activation. Cell RepGoogle Scholar
- Fan X, Liu EY, Freudenreich O, Park JH, Liu D, Wang J, Yi Z, Goff D, Henderson DC (2010) Higher white blood cell counts are associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome and more severe psychopathology in non-diabetic patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 118:211–217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fryk E, Sundelin JP, Strindberg L, Pereira MJ, Federici M, Marx N, Nystrom FH, Schmelz M, Svensson PA, Eriksson JW, Boren J, Jansson PA (2016) Microdialysis and proteomics of subcutaneous interstitial fluid reveals increased galectin-1 in type 2 diabetes patients. Metabolism 65:998–1006CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iacobini C, Menini S, Oddi G, Ricci C, Amadio L, Pricci F, Olivieri A, Sorcini M, Di Mario U, Pesce C, Pugliese G (2004) Galectin-3/AGE-receptor 3 knockout mice show accelerated AGE-induced glomerular injury: evidence for a protective role of galectin-3 as an AGE receptor. FASEB J 18:1773–1775PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kajitani K, Nomaru H, Ifuku M, Yutsudo N, Dan Y, Miura T, Tsuchimoto D, Sakumi K, Kadoya T, Horie H, Poirier F, Noda M, Nakabeppu Y (2009) Galectin-1 promotes basal and kainate-induced proliferation of neural progenitors in the dentate gyrus of adult mouse hippocampus. Cell Death Differ 16:417–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koike S, Kayama T, Arai M, Horiuchi Y, Kobori A, Miyashita M, Itokawa M, Ogasawara Y (2015) Characterization of modified proteins in plasma from a subtype of schizophrenia based on carbonyl stress: protein carbonyl is a possible biomarker of psychiatric disorders. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 467:361–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Overall JE, Gorham DR (1988) The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): recent developments in ascertainment and scaling. Psychopharmacol Bull 24:97–99Google Scholar
- Telford JE, Bones J, McManus C, Saldova R, Manning G, Doherty M, Leweke FM, Rothermundt M, Guest PC, Rahmoune H, Bahn S, Rudd PM (2012) Antipsychotic treatment of acute paranoid schizophrenia patients with olanzapine results in altered glycosylation of serum glycoproteins. J Proteome Res 11:3743–3752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tunca Z, Kivircik Akdede B, Ozerdem A, Alkin T, Polat S, Ceylan D, Bayin M, Cengizcetin Kocuk N, Simsek S, Resmi H, Akan P (2015) Diverse glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) support between mania and schizophrenia: a comparative study in four major psychiatric disorders. Eur Psychiatry 30:198–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Berckel BN, Bossong MG, Boellaard R, Kloet R, Schuitemaker A, Caspers E, Luurtsema G, Windhorst AD, Cahn W, Lammertsma AA, Kahn RS (2008) Microglia activation in recent-onset schizophrenia: a quantitative (R)-[11C]PK11195 positron emission tomography study. Biol Psychiatry 64:820–822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar