Adolescent d-amphetamine treatment in a rodent model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact on cocaine abuse vulnerability in adulthood
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Stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents remain controversial with respect to later development of cocaine abuse. Past research demonstrated that adolescent methylphenidate treatment increased several aspects of cocaine self-administration during adulthood using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Presently, we determined effects of the alternate stimulant medication, d-amphetamine, on cocaine self-administration.
We tested the hypothesis that adolescent d-amphetamine would not increase cocaine self-administration in adult SHR, given that d-amphetamine has a different mechanism of action than methylphenidate.
A pharmacologically relevant dose of d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered throughout adolescence to SHR and two control strains, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar (WIS). Three aspects of cocaine abuse vulnerability were assessed in adulthood after discontinuing adolescent treatments: acquisition rate and dose-related responding under fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio schedules.
Adult SHR acquired cocaine self-administration faster and self-administered more cocaine across multiple doses compared to WKY and WIS under FR and PR schedules, indicating that SHR is a reliable animal model of comorbid ADHD and cocaine abuse. Relative to vehicle, SHR and WIS with adolescent d-amphetamine treatment self-administered less cocaine upon reaching acquisition criteria, and WIS additionally acquired cocaine self-administration more slowly and had downward shifts in FR and PR cocaine dose-response curves. WKY with adolescent d-amphetamine treatment acquired cocaine self-administration more quickly relative to vehicle.
In contrast to methylphenidate, adolescent d-amphetamine did not augment cocaine self-administration in SHR. Adolescent d-amphetamine treatment actually protected against cocaine abuse vulnerability in adult SHR and WIS.
KeywordsAdolescence Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Cocaine self-administration d-Amphetamine Spontaneously hypertensive rat
The authors thank Laura Tabbaa, Sae-Mi Jeon, and Britahny Baskin for research assistance.
National Institutes of Health grant DA011716 and the Clara Mayo Memorial Fellowship at Boston University.
Conflict of interest
Chloe Jordan, Carley Lemay, Linda Dwoskin, and Kathleen Kantak declare no conflicts of interest.
Research involving animals
All procedures were approved by the Boston University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and were in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide For the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th Edition).
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