, Volume 232, Issue 1, pp 233–243

A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers

  • Lorenzo Leggio
  • William H. Zywiak
  • Steven M. Edwards
  • Jennifer W. Tidey
  • Robert M. Swift
  • George A. Kenna
Original Investigation



There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies.


This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers.


This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n = 18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment.


Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p = 0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p < 0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p < 0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p = 0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p = 0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type.


This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies.


Baclofen Alcoholism Smoking Comorbidity 

Supplementary material

213_2014_3652_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (81 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 1SStudy flow chart (PPTX 81 kb)
213_2014_3652_MOESM2_ESM.pptx (62 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 2SEffects of BACL vs. placebo in participants with high (>14.5) vs. low (<14.5) alcohol dependence scale (ADS) score on percent days abstinent from alcohol-tobacco co-use (PPTX 61 kb)
213_2014_3652_MOESM3_ESM.pptx (57 kb)
Supplemental Fig. 3SEffects of BACL vs. placebo in participants with high (>7.5) vs. low (<7.5) nicotine dependence severity (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score) on percent days abstinent from alcohol-tobacco co-use (PPTX 56 kb)
213_2014_3652_MOESM4_ESM.docx (28 kb)
ESM 4(DOCX 27 kb)


  1. Addolorato G, Caputo F, Capristo E, Colombo G, Gessa GL, Gasbarrini G (2000) Ability of baclofen in reducing alcohol craving and intake: II—preliminary clinical evidence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Addolorato G, Caputo F, Capristo E, Domenicali M, Bernardi M, Janiri L, Agabio R, Colombo G, Gessa GL, Gasbarrini G (2002a) Baclofen efficacy in reducing alcohol craving and intake: a preliminary double-blind randomized controlled study. Alcohol Alcohol 37:504–508CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Addolorato G, Caputo F, Capristo E, Janiri L, Bernardi M, Agabio R, Colombo G, Gessa GL, Gasbarrini G (2002b) Rapid suppression of alcohol withdrawal syndrome by baclofen. Am J Med 112:226–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Addolorato G, Leggio L, Abenavoli L, Agabio R, Caputo F, Capristo E, Colombo G, Gessa GL, Gasbarrini G (2006) Baclofen in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a comparative study vs diazepam. Am J Med 119(276):e213–e278Google Scholar
  5. Addolorato G, Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Cardone S, Vonghia L, Mirijello A, Abenavoli L, D'Angelo C, Caputo F, Zambon A, Haber PS, Gasbarrini G (2007) Effectiveness and safety of baclofen for maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients with liver cirrhosis: randomised, double-blind controlled study. Lancet 370:1915–1922CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Addolorato, G., Leggio, L., Ferrulli, A., Cardone, S., Bedogni, G., Caputo, F., Gasbarrini, G., Landolfi, R., Baclofen Study, G., 2011. Dose–response effect of baclofen in reducing daily alcohol intake in alcohol dependence: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol and Alcoholism 46, 312–317Google Scholar
  7. Anstrom KK, Cromwell HC, Markowski T, Woodward DJ (2003) Effect of baclofen on alcohol and sucrose self-administration in rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:900–908CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anton RF, Moak DH, Latham P (1995) The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale: a self-rated instrument for the quantification of thoughts about alcohol and drinking behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 19:92–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anton RF, O'Malley SS, Ciraulo DA, Cisler RA, Couper D, Donovan DM, Gastfriend DR, Hosking JD, Johnson BA, LoCastro JS, Longabaugh R, Mason BJ, Mattson ME, Miller WR, Pettinati HM, Randall CL, Swift R, Weiss RD, Williams LD, Zweben A, COMBINE Study Research Group (2006) Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence: the COMBINE study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 295:2003–2017CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baltieri DA, Daro FR, Ribeiro PL, Andrade AG (2009) Effects of topiramate or naltrexone on tobacco use among male alcohol-dependent outpatients. Drug Alcohol Depend 105:33–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertholet N, Gaume J, Faouzi M, Gmel G, Daeppen JB (2012) Predictive value of readiness, importance, and confidence in ability to change drinking and smoking. BMC Public Health 12:708CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Besheer J, Lepoutre V, Hodge CW (2004) GABA(B) receptor agonists reduce operant ethanol self-administration and enhance ethanol sedation in C57BL/6J mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:358–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biener L, Abrams DB (1991) The contemplation ladder: validation of a measure of readiness to consider smoking cessation. Health Psychol: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 10:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohn MJ, Krahn DD, Staehler BA (1995) Development and initial validation of a measure of drinking urges in abstinent alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 19:600–606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowery NG, Hudson AL, Price GW (1987) GABAA and GABAB receptor site distribution in the rat central nervous system. Neuroscience 20:365–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaudhri N, Woods CA, Sahuque LL, Gill TM, Janak PH (2013) Unilateral inactivation of the basolateral amygdala attenuates context-induced renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking. Eur J Neurosci 38:2751–2761CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Colombo G, Agabio R, Carai MA, Lobina C, Pani M, Reali R, Addolorato G, Gessa GL (2000) Ability of baclofen in reducing alcohol intake and withdrawal severity: I—preclinical evidence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:58–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Colombo G, Serra S, Brunetti G, Atzori G, Pani M, Vacca G, Addolorato G, Froestl W, Carai MA, Gessa GL (2002) The GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and CGP 44532 prevent acquisition of alcohol drinking behaviour in alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol Alcohol 37:499–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Colombo G, Serra S, Brunetti G, Vacca G, Carai MA, Gessa GL (2003a) Suppression by baclofen of alcohol deprivation effect in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 70:105–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Colombo G, Vacca G, Serra S, Brunetti G, Carai MA, Gessa GL (2003b) Baclofen suppresses motivation to consume alcohol in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:221–224Google Scholar
  21. Colombo G, Serra S, Vacca G, Carai MA, Gessa GL (2006) Baclofen-induced suppression of alcohol deprivation effect in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats exposed to different alcohol concentrations. Eur J Pharmacol 550:123–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. COMBINE Study Research Group (2003) Testing combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions in alcohol dependence: rationale and methods. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:1107–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooney JL, Cooney NL, Pilkey DT, Kranzler HR, Oncken CA (2003) Effects of nicotine deprivation on urges to drink and smoke in alcoholic smokers. Addiction 98:913–921CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooney NL, Cooney JL, Perry BL, Carbone M, Cohen EH, Steinberg HR, Pilkey DT, Sevarino K, Oncken CA, Litt MD (2009) Smoking cessation during alcohol treatment: a randomized trial of combination nicotine patch plus nicotine gum. Addiction 104:1588–1596CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Corrigall WA, Coen KM, Adamson KL, Chow BL, Zhang J (2000) Response of nicotine self-administration in the rat to manipulations of mu-opioid and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the ventral tegmental area. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 149:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Corrigall WA, Coen KM, Zhang J, Adamson KL (2001) GABA mechanisms in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus influence particular aspects of nicotine self-administration selectively in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 158:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cousins MS, Stamat HM, de Wit H (2001) Effects of a single dose of baclofen on self-reported subjective effects and tobacco smoking. Nicotine Tobacco Research: Off J Society Research Nicotine Tobacco 3:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cox LS, Tiffany ST, Christen AG (2001) Evaluation of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-brief) in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine Tobacco Research: Off J Society Research Nicotine Tobacco 3:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Daoust M, Saligaut C, Lhuintre JP, Moore N, Flipo JL, Boismare F (1987) GABA transmission, but not benzodiazepine receptor stimulation, modulates ethanol intake by rats. Alcohol 4:469–472CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Del Boca FK, Kranzler HR, Brown J, Korner PF (1996) Assessment of medication compliance in alcoholics through UV light detection of a riboflavin tracer. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 20:1412–1417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Drummond DC (2000) What does cue-reactivity have to offer clinical research? Addiction 95(Suppl 2):S129–S144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Duke AN, Kaminski BJ, Weerts EM (2014) Baclofen effects on alcohol seeking, self-administration and extinction of seeking responses in a within-session design in baboons. Addict Biol 19:16–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fagerstrom KO, Schneider NG (1989) Measuring nicotine dependence: a review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. J Behav Med 12:159–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Falk DE, Yi HY, Hiller-Sturmhofel S (2006) An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use and disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Alcohol Research Health: J National Institute Alcohol Abuse Alcoholism 29:162–171Google Scholar
  35. Fattore L, Cossu G, Martellotta MC, Fratta W (2002) Baclofen antagonizes intravenous self-administration of nicotine in mice and rats. Alcohol Alcohol 37:495–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fattore L, Spano MS, Cossu G, Scherma M, Fratta W, Fadda P (2009) Baclofen prevents drug-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking behaviour and nicotine place preference in rodents. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol: J European College Neuropsychopharmacol 19:487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Flannery BA, Garbutt JC, Cody MW, Renn W, Grace K, Osborne M, Crosby K, Morreale M, Trivette A (2004) Baclofen for alcohol dependence: a preliminary open-label study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:1517–1523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Franklin TR, Harper D, Kampman K, Kildea-McCrea S, Jens W, Lynch KG, O'Brien CP, Childress AR (2009) The GABA B agonist baclofen reduces cigarette consumption in a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled smoking reduction study. Drug Alcohol Depend 103:30–36CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fucito LM, Park A, Gulliver SB, Mattson ME, Gueorguieva RV, O'Malley SS (2012) Cigarette smoking predicts differential benefit from naltrexone for alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry 72:832–838CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Funk D, Marinelli PW, Le AD (2006) Biological processes underlying co-use of alcohol and nicotine: neuronal mechanisms, cross-tolerance, and genetic factors. Alcohol Research Health: J National Institute Alcohol Abuse Alcoholism 29:186–192Google Scholar
  41. Garbutt JC, Kampov-Polevoy AB, Gallop R, Kalka-Juhl L, Flannery BA (2010) Efficacy and safety of baclofen for alcohol dependence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:1849–1857CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Grant BF, Hasin DS, Chou SP, Stinson FS, Dawson DA (2004) Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:1107–1115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gueorguieva R, Mallinckrodt C, Krystal JH (2011) Trajectories of depression severity in clinical trials of duloxetine: insights into antidepressant and placebo responses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:1227–1237CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Harrison EL, Hinson RE, McKee SA (2009) Experimenting and daily smokers: episodic patterns of alcohol and cigarette use. Addict Behav 34:484–486CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hintz T, Mann K (2007) Long-term behavior in treated alcoholism: Evidence for beneficial carry-over effects of abstinence from smoking on alcohol use and vice versa. Addict Behav 32:3093–3100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hurt RD, Offord KP, Croghan IT, Gomez-Dahl L, Kottke TE, Morse RM, Melton LJ 3rd (1996) Mortality following inpatient addictions treatment. Role of Tobacco Use in a Community-Based Cohort. JAMA: J Am Med Assoc 275:1097–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Janak PH, Michael Gill T (2003) Comparison of the effects of allopregnanolone with direct GABAergic agonists on ethanol self-administration with and without concurrently available sucrose. Alcohol 30:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jimenez-Ruiz C, Berlin I, Hering T (2009) Varenicline: a novel pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Drugs 69:1319–1338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson BA, Ait-Daoud N, Akhtar FZ, Javors MA (2005) Use of oral topiramate to promote smoking abstinence among alcohol-dependent smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 165:1600–1605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Knapp DJ, Overstreet DH, Breese GR (2007) Baclofen blocks expression and sensitization of anxiety-like behavior in an animal model of repeated stress and ethanol withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:582–595CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Leggio L, Garbutt JC, Addolorato G (2010) Effectiveness and safety of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependent patients. CNS Neurological Disorders Drug Targets 9:33–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Leggio L, Ferrulli A, Zambon A, Caputo F, Kenna GA, Swift RM, Addolorato G (2012) Baclofen promotes alcohol abstinence in alcohol dependent cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Addict Behav 37:561–564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Leggio L, Zywiak WH, McGeary JE, Edwards S, Fricchione SR, Shoaff JR, Addolorato G, Swift RM, Kenna GA (2013) A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 103:784–791CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lewis-Esquerre JM, Colby SM, Tevyaw TO, Eaton CA, Kahler CW, Monti PM (2005) Validation of the timeline follow-back in the assessment of adolescent smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend 79:33–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Liang JH, Chen F, Krstew E, Cowen MS, Carroll FY, Crawford D, Beart PM, Lawrence AJ (2006) The GABA(B) receptor allosteric modulator CGP7930, like baclofen, reduces operant self-administration of ethanol in alcohol-preferring rats. Neuropharmacology 50:632–639CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Litten RZ, Ryan ML, Fertig JB, Falk DE, Johnson B, Dunn KE, Green AI, Pettinati HM, Ciraulo DA, Sarid-Segal O, Kampman K, Brunette MF, Strain EC, Tiouririne NA, Ransom J, Scott C, Stout R, N.S.G (2013) A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of varenicline tartrate for alcohol dependence. J Addiction Medicine 7:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lobina C, Carai MA, Froestl W, Mugnaini C, Pasquini S, Corelli F, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2011) Activation of the GABA(B) Receptor prevents nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice. Frontiers Psychiatry 2:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lyon JE, Khan RA, Gessert CE, Larson PM, Renier CM (2011) Treating alcohol withdrawal with oral baclofen: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hosp Med: Off Publication Soc Hosp Med 6:469–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maccioni P, Serra S, Vacca G, Orru A, Pes D, Agabio R, Addolorato G, Carai MA, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2005) Baclofen-induced reduction of alcohol reinforcement in alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol 36:161–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Maccioni P, Bienkowski P, Carai MA, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2008a) Baclofen attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 95:284–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Maccioni P, Fantini N, Froestl W, Carai MA, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2008b) Specific reduction of alcohol's motivational properties by the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783—comparison with the effect of the GABAB receptor direct agonist, baclofen. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1558–1564CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Markou A, Paterson NE, Semenova S (2004) Role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and metabotropic glutamate receptors in nicotine reinforcement: potential pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1025:491–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Monti PM, Binkoff JA, Abrams DB, Zwick WR, Nirenberg TD, Liepman MR (1987) Reactivity of alcoholics and nonalcoholics to drinking cues. J Abnorm Psychol 96:122–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Monti PM, Rohsenow DJ, Hutchison KE, Swift RM, Mueller TI, Colby SM, Brown RA, Gulliver SB, Gordon A, Abrams DB (1999) Naltrexone's effect on cue-elicited craving among alcoholics in treatment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23:1386–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Monti PM, Rohsenow DJ, Hutchison KE (2000) Toward bridging the gap between biological, psychobiological and psychosocial models of alcohol craving. Addiction 95(Suppl 2):S229–S236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Monti PM, Rohsenow DJ, Swift RM, Gulliver SB, Colby SM, Mueller TI, Brown RA, Gordon A, Abrams DB, Niaura RS, Asher MK (2001) Naltrexone and cue exposure with coping and communication skills training for alcoholics: treatment process and 1-year outcomes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:1634–1647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Murschall A, Hauber W (2006) Inactivation of the ventral tegmental area abolished the general excitatory influence of Pavlovian cues on instrumental performance. Learning Memory 13:123–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Paterson NE, Froestl W, Markou A (2004) The GABAB receptor agonists baclofen and CGP44532 decreased nicotine self-administration in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 172:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Peloquin MP, Hecimovic K, Sardinha J, Stewart SH, Barrett SP (2013) The effect of snus on alcohol-related cigarette administration in dependent and non-dependent smokers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 114–115:97–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rohsenow DJ, Monti PM, Hutchison KE, Swift RM, Colby SM, Kaplan GB (2000) Naltrexone's effects on reactivity to alcohol cues among alcoholic men. J Abnorm Psychol 109:738–742CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Romberger DJ, Grant K (2004) Alcohol consumption and smoking status: the role of smoking cessation. Biomed Pharmacother = Biomedecine and Pharmacotherapie 58:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schlaepfer IR, Hoft NR, Ehringer MA (2008) The genetic components of alcohol and nicotine co-addiction: from genes to behavior. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 1:124–134CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Skinner HA, Allen BA (1982) Alcohol dependence syndrome: measurement and validation. J Abnorm Psychol 91:199–209CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sobell LC, Sobell MB, Leo GI, Cancilla A (1988) Reliability of a timeline method: assessing normal drinkers' reports of recent drinking and a comparative evaluation across several populations. Br J Addict 83:393–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sobell LC, Sobell MB, Kozlowski LT, Toneatto T (1990) Alcohol or tobacco research versus alcohol and tobacco research. Br J Addict 85:263–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Stout RL, Wirtz PW, Carbonari JP, Del Boca FK (1994) Ensuring balanced distribution of prognostic factors in treatment outcome research. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 12:70–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Tizabi Y, Copeland RL Jr, Louis VA, Taylor RE (2002) Effects of combined systemic alcohol and central nicotine administration into ventral tegmental area on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:394–399CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Vangeli E, Stapleton J, Smit ES, Borland R, West R (2011) Predictors of attempts to stop smoking and their success in adult general population samples: a systematic review. Addiction 106:2110–2121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Walker BM, Koob GF (2007) The gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptor agonist baclofen attenuates responding for ethanol in ethanol-dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:11–18CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Weiss RD, O'Malley SS, Hosking JD, Locastro JS, Swift R, Group, C.S.R (2008) Do patients with alcohol dependence respond to placebo? Results from the COMBINE Study. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 69:878–884CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. White KD (1977) Salivation: a review and experimental investigation of major techniques. Psychophysiology 14:203–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Yoshida M, Yokoo H, Tanaka T, Emoto H, Tanaka M (1994) Opposite changes in the mesolimbic dopamine metabolism in the nerve terminal and cell body sites induced by locally infused baclofen in the rat. Brain Res 636:111–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (Outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorenzo Leggio
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • William H. Zywiak
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Steven M. Edwards
    • 7
  • Jennifer W. Tidey
    • 6
  • Robert M. Swift
    • 6
    • 8
    • 9
  • George A. Kenna
    • 6
  1. 1.Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology, Laboratory of Clinical and Translational StudiesNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Intramural Research ProgramNational Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Center for Alcohol and Addiction StudiesBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  4. 4.Decision Sciences InstituteP.I.R.EPawtucketUSA
  5. 5.Butler HospitalProvidenceUSA
  6. 6.Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Center for Alcohol and Addiction StudiesBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA
  8. 8.Veterans Affairs Medical CenterProvidenceUSA
  9. 9.Roger Williams Medical CenterProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations