Effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance
- 835 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance.
Driving performance of forty-two social drinkers was tested the morning following an evening of consuming on average 10.2 (SD = 4.2) alcoholic drinks (alcohol hangover) and on a control day (no alcohol consumed). Subjects performed a standardized 100-km highway driving test in the STISIM driving simulator. In addition to the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP; i.e., the weaving of the car), lapses of attention were examined. Self-reported driving quality and driving style were scored, as well as mental effort to perform the test, sleepiness before and after driving, and hangover severity.
Driving performance was significantly impaired during alcohol hangover as expressed by an SDLP increase of +1.9 cm (t (1,41) = 2.851, p = 0.007), increased number of lapses relative to the control day (7.7 versus 5.3 lapses, t (1,41) = 2.125, p = 0.019), and an increased total lapse time (182.7 versus 127.3 s, p = 0.040). During alcohol hangover, subjects reported their driving quality to be significantly poorer (t (1,41) = 4.840, p = 0.001) and less safe (t (1,41) = 5.078, p = 0.001), wise (t (1,41) = 4.061, p = 0.001), predictable (t (1,41) = 3.475, p = 0.001), and responsible (t (1,41) = 4.122, p = 0.001). Subjects further reported being significantly more tense while driving (t (1,41) = 3.280, p = 0.002), and more effort was needed to perform the driving test (t (1,41) = 2.941, p = 0.001). There was a significant interaction with total sleep time and hangover effects on SDLP and the number of lapses.
In conclusion, driving is significantly impaired during alcohol hangover, as expressed in an elevated SDLP and increased number of lapses. Total sleep time has a significant impact on the magnitude of driving impairment.
KeywordsAlcohol Hangover Driving SDLP Lapses
Thanks to Gene Laska for his help with the symmetry analysis and Pieter van Dorp van Vliet for the artwork.
Conflict of interest
This study was funded by Utrecht University.
Joris Verster has received grants/research support from the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, Takeda, and Red Bull and has acted as a consultant for the Canadian Beverage Association, Centraal Bureau Drogisterijbedrijven, Coleman Frost, Deenox, Purdue, Red Bull, Sanofi-Aventis, Sepracor, Takeda, Transcept, and Trimbos Institute.
Thomas Roth has received grants/research support from Aventis, Cephalon, GlaxoSmithKline, Neurocrine, Pfizer, Sanofi, Schering-Plough, Sepracor, Somaxon, Syrex, Takeda, TransOral, Wyeth, and Xenoport; has acted as a consultant for Abbott, Acadia, Acoglix, Actelion, Alchemers, Alza, Ancil, Arena, AstraZeneca, Aventis, AVER, BMS, BTG, Cephalon, Cypress, Dove, Elan, Eli Lilly, Evotec, Forest, GlaxoSmithKline, Hypnion, Impax, Intec, Intra-Cellular, Jazz, Johnson & Johnson, King, Lundbeck, McNeil, MediciNova, Merck, Neurim, Neurocrine, Neurogen, Novartis, Orexo, Organon, Prestwick, Procter & Gamble, Pfizer, Purdue, Resteva, Roche, Sanofi, Schering-Plough, Sepracor, Servier, Shire, Somaxon, Syrex, Takeda, TransOral, Vanda, Vivometrics, Wyeth, Yamanuchi, and Xenoport.
Berend Olivier is a scientific advisor for Emotional Brain BV and has received research support from Emotional Brain, PsychoGenics Inc, Sepracor, Servier, Abbott, and the Dutch Brain Research Organization.
Karel Brookhuis has received grants/research support from NWO, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, European Commission, Wyeth, Sanofi, Schering, Nissan, JARI, Mercedes Benz, and Verbond van Verzekeraars.
The other authors have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Helland A, Jenssen GD, Lervåg LE, Westin AA, Moen T, Sakshaug K, Lydersen S, Mørland J, Slørdal L (2013) Comparison of driving simulator performance with real driving after alcohol intake: a randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Accid Anal Prev 53:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laurell H, Törnros J (1983) Investigation of alcoholic hangover effects on driving performance. Blut Alcohol 20:489–499Google Scholar
- Louwerens JW, Gloerich ABM, De Vries G, Brookhuis KA, O’Hanlon JF (1987) The relationship between drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and actual driving performance during high speed travel. In: Noordzij PC, Roszbach R (eds) Alcohol, drugs and traffic safety-T86. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 183–183Google Scholar
- O’Hanlon JF, Haak TW, Blauw GJ, Riemersma JBJ (1982) Diazepam impairs lateral position control in highway driving. Science 217:79–81Google Scholar
- Penning R, McKinney A, Verster JC (2012) Alcohol hangover symptoms and their contribution to overall hangover severity. Alcohol Alcoholism 47:248–252Google Scholar
- Törnros J, Laurell H (1991) Acute and hangover effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Blut Alcohol 28:24–30Google Scholar
- Verster JC, Stephens R, Penning R, Rohsenow D, McGeary J, Levy D, McKinney A, Finnigan F, Piasecki TM, Adan A, Batty GD, Fliervoet LAL, Heffernan T, Howland J, Kim D-J, Kruisselbrink LD, Ling J, McGregor N, Murphy RJL, van Nuland M, Oudelaar AM, Parkes A, Prat G, Reed N, Slutske WS, Smith G, Young M, on behalf of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group (2010) The Alcohol Hangover Research Group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 3:116–127PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Verster JC, Bervoets AC, de Klerk S, Roth T (2014b) Lapses of attention as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test. Psychopharmacology 231:283–292Google Scholar