, Volume 230, Issue 3, pp 451–463 | Cite as

Evaluation of cognitive behaviors in young offspring of C57BL/6J mice after gestational nicotine exposure during different time-windows

  • Tursun Alkam
  • Hyoung-Chun Kim
  • Takayoshi Mamiya
  • Kiyofumi Yamada
  • Masayuki Hiramatsu
  • Toshitaka NabeshimaEmail author
Original Investigation


Gestational nicotine exposure is associated with cognitive abnormalities in young offspring. However, practical strategies for prevention or treatment of impaired cognitive behaviors of offspring are not available due to the lack of systematic investigation of underlying mechanism. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the effects of gestational and/or perinatal nicotine exposure (GPNE) on cognitive behaviors in offspring of C57BL/6J mice to provide systematic behavioral data. Pregnant mice were exposed to nicotine via sweetened drinking water during six time-windows, including gestational day 0 to day 13 (G0–G13), G14–postnatal day 0 (P0), G0–P0, G14–P7, G0–P7, and P0–P7. During P42–P56 days, both male and female offspring were given a battery of behavioral tests. Depending on the time of exposure, GPNE impaired working memory, object-based attention, and prepulse inhibition in male and female offspring to different extents. Nicotine exposure during G14–P0 also decreased norepinephrine turnover in the prefrontal cortex on P28 and P56. Overall results indicate that nicotine exposure during any time-windows of development impairs cognitive behaviors in offspring, and suggest that certain time-windows, e.g., G14–P0, should be selected for further studies on the underlying neurochemical or molecular mechanisms.


Gestational Perinatal Nicotine Cognitive behaviors Mouse 



This study was supported by SRF Grant and Research on Risk of Chemical Substances, Health and Labour Science Research Grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW); by Grants-in-aid for Scientific Research(A) (22248033), Scientific Research (B)(20390073)(21390045), and Exploratory Research from the JSPS (19659017)(22659213) by the “Academic Frontier” Project for Private Universities (2007–2011) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT); by Regional Joint Research Program supported by grants to Private Universities to Cover Current Expenses from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT); by Research on Regulatory Science of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices from the Ministry of Health and Labour and Welfare (MHLW); by the joint research project under the Japan–Korea basic scientific cooperation program by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); and by the Brain Research Center from Twenty-first Century Frontier Research Program funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tursun Alkam
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hyoung-Chun Kim
    • 7
  • Takayoshi Mamiya
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Kiyofumi Yamada
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Masayuki Hiramatsu
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Toshitaka Nabeshima
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Project on the Risk of Chemical Substances, Food Hygiene AssociationThe Ministry of Health, Labour and WelfareTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical SciencesMeijo UniversityNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.The Academic Frontier Project for Private UniversitiesComparative Cognitive Science InstituteNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Regional Pharmaceutical Care & SciencesMeijo UniversityNagoyaJapan
  5. 5.Japanese Drug Organization of Appropriate Use and ResearchNagoyaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Neuropsychopharmacology & Hospital PharmacyNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  7. 7.Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of PharmacyKangwon National UniversityChunchonSouth Korea

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