Advertisement

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 228, Issue 4, pp 641–649 | Cite as

Higher levels of trait impulsiveness and a less effective response inhibition are linked to more intense cue-elicited craving for alcohol in alcohol-dependent patients

  • Harilaos PapachristouEmail author
  • Chantal Nederkoorn
  • Remco Havermans
  • Peggy Bongers
  • Shalana Beunen
  • Anita Jansen
Original Investigation

Abstract

Rationale

Cue-elicited craving is a well-researched phenomenon in alcohol literature. However, not all alcohol-dependent people display the same reactivity to alcohol cues. Personality factors such as multiple impulsivity traits may be responsible for individual differences in cue reactivity by modulating its intensity. Nevertheless, there has been a scarcity of empirical studies testing this assumption in alcohol literature.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of response inhibition and trait impulsiveness on cue-elicited craving for alcohol in alcohol-dependent drinkers.

Methods

Participants (n = 41) were inpatients of the private clinic U-Center, Netherlands. Alcohol exposure took place in a real bar–restaurant close to the premises of the clinic, and participants were exposed to real alcohol cues. Response inhibition was assessed with the stop-signal task and trait impulsiveness with the Barratt impulsivity scale version 11.

Results

The cue exposure was successful as alcohol-dependent patients experienced higher craving for alcohol when exposed to alcohol rather than to neutral cues. Additionally, both response inhibition and trait impulsiveness predicted cue-elicited craving for alcohol. Trait impulsiveness predicted both the absolute craving in the bar–restaurant and the increase in cue-elicited craving during the whole alcohol cue exposure, while response inhibition predicted only the former.

Conclusions

The results clearly implicate both trait impulsiveness and response inhibition in the modulation of cue-elicited craving in alcohol dependence. Theoretical and methodological issues in the findings and their clinical implications in alcohol treatment and relapse are discussed.

Keywords

Alcohol dependence Cue reactivity Craving Alcohol cue exposure Impulsivity Response inhibition Trait impulsiveness 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We are grateful to Ingrid Weijnen, director of U-Center, who enabled us to conduct this study. We would also like to thank the U-Center patients for their cooperation during this study and the therapists and staff of the clinic for their invaluable support in recruiting and diagnosing participants.

References

  1. Anton RF (1999) What is craving? Models and implications for treatment. Alcohol Research and Health 23:165–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Carter BL, Tiffany ST (1999) Meta-analysis of cue-reactivity in addiction research. Addiction 94:327–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Christiansen P, Cole JC, Goudie AJ, Field M (2012) Components of behavioral impulsivity and automatic cue approach predict unique variance in hazardous drinking. Psychopharmacology 219:501–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coffey SF, Schumacher J, Stasiewicz PR, Henslee AM, Baillie LE, Landy N (2010) Craving and physiological reactivity to trauma and alcohol cues in posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:340–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dawe S, Gullo MJ, Loxton NL (2004) Reward drive and rash impulsiveness as dimensions of impulsivity: Implications for substance misuse. Addict Behav 29:1389–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dawe S, Loxton NJ (2004) The role of impulsivity in the development of substance use and eating disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:343–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Wit H (2008) Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes. Addict Biol 14:22–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dick DM, Smith G, Olausson O, Mitchell SH, Leeman RF, O'Malley SS, Sher K (2010) Understanding the construct of impulsivity and its relationship to alcohol use disorders. Addict Biol 15:217–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dom G, Hulstijn W, Sabbe B (2006) Differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between early- and late-onset alcoholics. Addict Behav 31:298–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doran N, McChargue D, Spring B (2008) Effect of impulsivity on cardiovascular and subjective reactivity to smoking cues. Addict Behav 33:167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doran N, Spring B, McChargue D (2007) Effects of impulsivity on craving and behavioral reactivity to smoking cues. Psychopharmacology 194:279–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Drummond DC (2000) Human models in craving research: What does cue-reactivity have to offer clinical research? Addiction 95:S129–S144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Drummond DC, Litten RX, Lowman C, Hunt WA (2000) Craving research: future directions. Addiction 95:S247–S255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Eagle DM, Bari A, Robbins TW (2008) The neuropsychopharmacology of action inhibition: cross-species translation of the stop-signal and go/no-go tasks. Psychopharmacology 199:439–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Enticott PG, Ogloff GRP, Bradshaw JL (2006) Associations between laboratory measures of executive control and self-reported impulsivity. Personal Individ Differ 41:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Havermans RC, Mulkens S, Nederkoorn C, Jansen A (2007) The efficacy of cue exposure with response prevention in extinguishing drug and alcohol cue reactivity. Behav Interv 22:121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Henges AL, Marczinski CA (2012) Impulsivity and alcohol consumption in young social drinkers. Addict Behav 37:217–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kozlowski LT, Pillitteri JL, Sweeney CT, Whitfield KE, Graham JW (1996) Asking questions about urges or craving for cigarettes. Psychol Addict Behav 10:248–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lane SD, Cherek DR, Rhoades HM, Pietras CJ, Tcheremissine OV (2003) Relationships among laboratory and psychometric measures of impulsivity: implications in substance abuse and dependence. Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment 2:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Litt MD, Cooney NL, Morse P (2000) Reactivity to alcohol-related stimuli in the laboratory and in the field: predictors of craving in treated alcoholics. Addiction 95:889–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Logan GD, Schachar RJ, Tannock R (1997) Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychol Sci 8:60–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nederkoorn C, Baltus M, Guerrieri R, Wiers RW (2009) Heavy drinking is associated with deficient response inhibition in women but not in men. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 93:331–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nigg JT, Wong MM, Martel MM, Jester JM, Puttler LI, Glass JM, Adams KM, Fitzgerald HE, Zucker RA (2006) Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:468–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Papachristou H, Nederkoorn C, Corstjens J, Jansen A (2012a) The role of impulsivity and perceived availability on cue-elicited craving for alcohol in social drinkers. Psychopharmacology 224:145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Papachristou H, Nederkoorn C, Havermans R, van der Horst M, Jansen A (2012b) Can’t stop the craving: The effect of impulsivity on cue-elicited craving for alcohol in heavy and light social drinkers. Psychopharmacology 219:511–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Patterson CM, Newman JP (1993) Reflectivity and learning from aversive events: toward a psychological mechanism for the syndromes of disinhibition. Psychol Rev 100:716–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Patton JH, Stanford MS, Barratt ES (1995) Factor structure of the Barratt impulsiveness scale. J Clin Psychol 51:768–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robbins SJ, Ehrman RN (1992) Designing studies of drug conditioning in humans. Psychopharmacology 106:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rohsenow DJ, Niaura RS (1999) Reflections on the state of cue-reactivity theories and research. Addiction 94:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rubio G, Jimenez M, Rodrigo-Jimenez R, Martinez I, Avila C, Ferre F et al (2008) The role of behavioral impulsivity in the development of alcohol dependence: a 4-year follow-up study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1681–1687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sayette MA, Shiffman S, Tiffany ST, Niaura RS, Martin CS, Shadel WG (2000) Methodological approaches to craving research: the measurement of drug craving. Addiction 95:S189–S210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Tiffany ST, Carter BL, Singleton EG (2000) Challenges in the manipulation, assessment and interpretation of craving relevant variables. Addiction 95:S177–S187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Verdejo-Garcia A, Lawrence AJ, Clark L (2008) Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers, and genetic association studies. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews 32:777–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Von Diemen L, Bassani DG, Fuchs SC, Szobot CM, Pechansky F (2008) Impulsivity, age of first alcohol use and substance use disorders among male adolescents: a population based case–control study. Addiction 103:1198–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wertz JM, Sayette MA (2001) A review of the effects of perceived drug use opportunity on self-report urge. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 9:3–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Whiteside SP, Lynam DR (2001) The Five Factor Model and impulsivity: using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personal Individ Differ 30:669–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Whiteside SP, Lynam DR (2003) Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 11:210–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harilaos Papachristou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Chantal Nederkoorn
    • 1
  • Remco Havermans
    • 1
  • Peggy Bongers
    • 1
  • Shalana Beunen
    • 1
  • Anita Jansen
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Psychology and NeuroscienceMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtthe Netherlands
  2. 2.U-CenterEpenthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations