, Volume 228, Issue 2, pp 217–230 | Cite as

Effects of chronic social defeat stress on behavior and choline acetyltransferase, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein in adult mice

  • Tong Zhao
  • Guang-Biao Huang
  • Sushma Shrestha Muna
  • Tarique Rajasaheb Bagalkot
  • Hong-Mei Jin
  • Han-Jung Chae
  • Young-Chul Chung
Original Investigation



Social defeat stress induces physiological and behavioral symptoms, including anxiety, anhedonia, immune deficits, and altered expression of key brain genes.


The present study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on the behaviors and expressions of Chat, Grp78, and chop in the brains of adult mice.


Adult mice were divided into susceptible and unsusceptible groups after 10 days of social defeat stress. In experiment 1, behavioral tests were conducted, and brains were processed for Western blotting at day 27 after stress. In experiment 2, social avoidance tests were conducted, and brains were processed for Western blotting at day 12 after stress.


The results indicate decreased and increased locomotion and anxiety behavior in all defeated mice. Decrease in social interaction, increased immobility, and impaired memory performance were only observed in susceptible mice. A decrease in the Chat level at days 12 and 27 was noted in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (Amyg), and dorsal hippocampus (HIP) in defeated mice. The expression levels of Grp78 and chop measured on days 12 and 27 were significantly greater in the Amyg of susceptible mice. In the PFC and HIP, defeated mice displayed different patterns in the levels of Grp78 and chop expressions measured on days 12 and 27.


The present study demonstrated that chronic social defeat stress in mice produces stress-related behaviors. Different response patterns were noted for Grp78 and chop expression among the groups in terms of brain regions and time-course effects.


Social defeat Depression Susceptibility Object recognition test 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein 



This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (2012-0007635).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tong Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guang-Biao Huang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sushma Shrestha Muna
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tarique Rajasaheb Bagalkot
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hong-Mei Jin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Han-Jung Chae
    • 3
  • Young-Chul Chung
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryChonbuk National University Medical SchoolJeonjuKorea
  2. 2.Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University–Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University HospitalJeonjuKorea
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyChonbuk National University Medical School & Institute for Medical SciencesJeonjuSouth Korea

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