, Volume 227, Issue 3, pp 425–436

Caffeine increases liking and consumption of novel-flavored yogurt

  • Leah M. Panek
  • Christine Swoboda
  • Ashley Bendlin
  • Jennifer L. Temple
Original Investigation



Caffeine has been shown to increase preference for beverages with which it is paired; however, it is not known if caffeine alters liking for foods with which it is paired indirectly.


The purpose of the current experiment was to test the hypothesis that a caffeinated beverage paired with a novel-flavored yogurt will increase preference for that yogurt compared to one paired with placebo. We also tested the hypothesis that liking would increase more when caffeine was paired with high energy density yogurt.


Men and women (n = 62) were randomized to receive a beverage containing placebo (PLA) or caffeine (CAF) and to consume a low (LED) or high energy density (HED), novel-flavored yogurt. Participants rated, ranked, and consumed seven novel-flavored yogurts and then had a target yogurt paired with either PLA or CAF over four consecutive days.


In general, yogurt liking increased over time, the HED yogurt was liked more than the LED yogurt, and yogurt paired with caffeine was liked more than yogurt paired with placebo. Participants showed a significant increase in liking of LED yogurt paired with caffeine compared to those with LED yogurt paired with placebo.


Caffeine administration may increase liking and consumption of novel-flavored foods, particularly if the food is not highly liked at baseline. This suggests that caffeine pairing may be a way to increase liking of LED foods, such as vegetables and fruit.


Caffeine Energy density Hedonics Flavor–nutrient learning Conditioning 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leah M. Panek
    • 1
  • Christine Swoboda
    • 1
  • Ashley Bendlin
    • 1
  • Jennifer L. Temple
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, School of Public Health and Health ProfessionsUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

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