Effect of thought suppression on desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms
- 370 Downloads
Suppressing smoking thoughts has been shown to result in elevated smoking. However, the effect of suppressing smoking thoughts on desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms has not been investigated.
We examined the effects of suppressing smoking thoughts on the subsequent desire to smoke and on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, relative to groups that were either thinking about anything they wished or actively thinking about smoking.
A randomised experimental study compared the effects of three manipulations (suppressed smoking thoughts, expressed smoking thoughts and thoughts of anything they wished) on desire and withdrawal immediately after the manipulation and 5 and 10 min after.
Suppressing smoking thoughts did not result in elevated subsequent desire to smoke, relative to the other manipulations. Suppressing smoking thoughts resulted in a significant elevation in hunger ratings, relative to the other manipulations, at all measurement times. There were no significant effects for the other withdrawal symptoms. Self-reported greater use of thought suppression in everyday life was significantly associated with greater desire to smoke at baseline and was associated with lower mindfulness scores.
Laboratory-instructed suppression of smoking thoughts is associated with increased reports of hunger but did not lead to increases in other withdrawal symptoms or elevated desire to smoke. Reports of everyday use of thought suppression are associated with elevated desire to smoke at baseline. Further investigations need to assess the effect of suppressing smoking cravings, instead of general smoking thoughts, on desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal.
KeywordsSmoking Tobacco Cravings Withdrawal Thought suppression
- Gilbert RM, Pope MA (1982) Early effects of quitting smoking. Psychopharmacology 78:121–127Google Scholar
- Goldbourt U, Madalie JH (1977) Characteristics of smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers among 10,000 adult males in Israel. Am J Epidemiol 105:77–85Google Scholar
- Herman CP, Polivy J (1980) Restrained eating. In: Stunkard AJ (ed) Obesity. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 208–225Google Scholar
- Hughes J, Stead L, Lancaster T (2007) Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD00003Google Scholar
- Palfai TP, Colby SM, Monti PM, Rohsenow DJ (1997) Effects of suppressing the urge to drink on smoking topography: a preliminary study. Psychol of Addict Behav 11:115–123Google Scholar
- Parsons AC, Shraim M, Inglis J, Aveyard P, Hajek P (2009) Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD006219Google Scholar
- Pomerleau CS, Krahn DD (1993) Smoking and eating disorders: a connection? J of Addict Dis 12:169Google Scholar
- Saules KK, Pomerleau CS, Snedecor SM, Mehringer AM, Shadle MB, Kurth CL, Krahn DD (2004) Relationship of onset of cigarette smoking during college to alcohol use, dieting concerns, and depressed mood: results from the Young Women’s Health Survey. Addict Behav 29:893–899Google Scholar
- Ussher M, Taylor A, Faulkner G (2008) Exercise interventions for smoking cessation (review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4):CD002295Google Scholar
- White MA, Grilo CM (2006) Psychiatric comorbidity in binge-eating disorder as a function of smoking history. J Clin Psych 67:594–599Google Scholar