Psychopharmacology

, Volume 218, Issue 4, pp 649–665 | Cite as

Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects

  • Roland R. Griffiths
  • Matthew W. Johnson
  • William A. Richards
  • Brian D. Richards
  • Una McCann
  • Robert Jesse
Original Investigation

Abstract

Rationale

This dose-effect study extends previous observations showing that psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having persisting positive effects on attitudes, mood, and behavior.

Objectives

This double-blind study evaluated psilocybin (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg, p.o.) administered under supportive conditions.

Methods

Participants were 18 adults (17 hallucinogen-naïve). Five 8-h sessions were conducted individually for each participant at 1-month intervals. Participants were randomized to receive the four active doses in either ascending or descending order (nine participants each). Placebo was scheduled quasi-randomly. During sessions, volunteers used eyeshades and were instructed to direct their attention inward. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing effects immediately after and 1 month after each session, and at 14 months follow-up.

Results

Psilocybin produced acute perceptual and subjective effects including, at 20 and/or 30 mg/70 kg, extreme anxiety/fear (39% of volunteers) and/or mystical-type experience (72% of volunteers). One month after sessions at the two highest doses, volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal and spiritual significance, and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes, mood, and behavior, with the ascending dose sequence showing greater positive effects. At 14 months, ratings were undiminished and were consistent with changes rated by community observers. Both the acute and persisting effects of psilocybin were generally a monotonically increasing function of dose, with the lowest dose showing significant effects.

Conclusions

Under supportive conditions, 20 and 30 mg/70 kg psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences having persisting positive effects on attitudes, mood, and behavior. Implications for therapeutic trials are discussed.

Keywords

Psilocybin Dose effects Hallucinogen Entheogen Psychedelic Mystical experience Fear Spiritual Religion Positive psychology Humans 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland R. Griffiths
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matthew W. Johnson
    • 1
  • William A. Richards
    • 3
  • Brian D. Richards
    • 3
  • Una McCann
    • 1
  • Robert Jesse
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeuroscienceJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryJohns Hopkins Bayview Medical CenterBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Council on Spiritual PracticesSan FranciscoUSA

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