Advertisement

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 215, Issue 4, pp 761–774 | Cite as

Prospective memory functioning among ecstasy/polydrug users: evidence from the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT)

  • Florentia Hadjiefthyvoulou
  • John E. Fisk
  • Catharine Montgomery
  • Nikola Bridges
Original Investigation

Abstract

Rationale

Prospective memory (PM) deficits in recreational drug users have been documented in recent years. However, the assessment of PM has largely been restricted to self-reported measures that fail to capture the distinction between event-based and time-based PM. The aim of the present study is to address this limitation.

Objectives

Extending our previous research, we augmented the range laboratory measures of PM by employing the CAMPROMPT test battery to investigate the impact of illicit drug use on prospective remembering in a sample of cannabis only, ecstasy/polydrug and non-users of illicit drugs, separating event and time-based PM performance. We also administered measures of executive function and retrospective memory in order to establish whether ecstasy/polydrug deficits in PM were mediated by group differences in these processes.

Results

Ecstasy/polydrug users performed significantly worse on both event and time-based prospective memory tasks in comparison to both cannabis only and non-user groups. Furthermore, it was found that across the whole sample, better retrospective memory and executive functioning was associated with superior PM performance. Nevertheless, this association did not mediate the drug-related effects that were observed. Consistent with our previous study, recreational use of cocaine was linked to PM deficits.

Conclusions

PM deficits have again been found among ecstasy/polydrug users, which appear to be unrelated to group differences in executive function and retrospective memory. However, the possibility that these are attributable to cocaine use cannot be excluded.

Keywords

Ecstacy Cocaine Cannabis Prospective memory CAMPROMPT 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that except for income received from their primary employers, this research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors are not aware of any conflict of interest and do not have any financial interest in this piece of research.

References

  1. Adda CC, Castro LHM, Além-Mar e Silva LC, de Manreza MLG, Kashiara R (2008) Prospective memory and mesial temporal epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. Neuropsychologia 46(7):1954–1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burgess PW, Scott SK, Frith CD (2003) The role of the rostral frontal cortex (area 10) in prospective memory: a lateral versus medial dissociation. Neuropsychologia 41:906–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Costa A, Peppe A, Brusa L, Caltagirone C, Gatto I, Carlesimo GA (2008) Dopaminergic modulation of prospective memory in Parkinson’s disease. Behav Neurol 19:45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Crawford JR, Smith G, Maylor EA, Della-Sala S, Logie RH (2003) The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire, (PRMQ): normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. Memory 11:261–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dixon RA, de Frias CM, Bäckman L (2001) Characteristics of self-reported memory compensation in older adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 23(5):650–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fisk JE, Montgomery C (2008) Real world memory and executive processes in cannabis users and non-users. J Psychopharmacol 22:727–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fisk JE, Sharp CA (2004) Age-related impairment in executive functioning: updating, inhibition, shifting, and access. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 26:874–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fleming J, Riley L, Gill H, Gullo MJ, Strong J, Shum D (2008) Predictors of prospective memory in adults with traumatic brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 14:823–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox HC, Jackson ED, Sinha R (2009) Elevated cortisol and learning and memory deficits in cocaine dependent individuals: relationship to relapse outcomes. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:1198–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gilbert SJ, Frith CD, Burgess PW (2005) Involvement of rostral prefrontal cortex in selection between stimulus-oriented and stimulus-independent thought. Eur J Neurosci 21:1423–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goto Y, Grace AA (2008) Dopamine modulation of hippocampal–prefrontal cortical interaction drives memory-guided behavior. Cereb Cortex 18:1407–1414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Groot YCT, Wilson BA, Evans J, Watson P (2002) Prospective memory functioning in people with and without brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 8:645–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hannon R, Adams P, Harrington S, Fries-Dias C, Gibson MT (1995) Effects of brain injury and age on prospective memory self-rating and performance. Rehabil Psychol 40:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hadjiefthyvoulou F, Fisk JE, Montgomery C, Bridges N (2010a). Self-reports of executive dysfunction in ecstasy/polydrug users. (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  15. Hadjiefthyvoulou F, Fisk JE, Montgomery C, Bridges N (2010b) Everyday and prospective memory deficits in ecstasy/polydrug users. J Psychopharmacol 21:709–717Google Scholar
  16. Heffernan TM, Jarvis H, Rodgers J, Scholey AB, Ling J (2001a) Prospective memory, everyday cognitive failure and central executive function in recreational users of Ecstasy. Hum Psychopharmacol 16:607–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heffernan TM, Ling J, Scholey AB (2001b) Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in MDMA (‘ecstasy’) users. Hum Psychopharmacol 16:339–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Henry JD, Rendell PG, Kliegel M, Altgassen M (2007) Prospective memory in schizophrenia: primary or secondary impairment? Schizophr Res 95(1–3):179–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kliegel M, Phillips LH, Lemke U, Kopp UA (2005) Planning and realisation of complex intentions in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1501–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leitz JR, Morgan CJA, Bisby JA, Rendell PG, Curran HV (2009) Global impairment of prospective memory following acute alcohol. Psychopharmacology 205:379–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marsh RL, Hicks JL (1998) Event-based prospective memory and executive control of working memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 24:336–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin T, McDaniel MA, Houck JM, Woodruff CC, Bish JP, Moses SN, Kičić D, Tesche CD (2007) Brain regions and their dynamics in prospective memory retrieval: a MEG study. Int J Psychophysiol 64:247–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McDaniel MA, Glisky EL, Guynn MJ, Routhieaux BC (1999) Prospective memory: a neuropsychological study. Neuropsychology 13:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McHale S, Hunt N (2008) Executive function deficits in short-term abstinent cannabis users. Hum Psychopharmacol 23:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Medina KL, Shear PK, Corcoran K (2005) Ecstasy (MDMA) exposure and neuropsychological functioning: a polydrug perspective. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 11:753–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miyake A, Friedman NP, Emerson MJ, Witzki AH, Howerter A, Wager TD (2000) The unity and Diversity of executive functions, and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cogn Psychol 41:49–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Montgomery C, Fisk JE (2007) Everyday memory deficits in ecstasy-polydrug users. J Psychopharmacol 21:709–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Montgomery C, Fisk JE, Newcombe R (2005a) The nature of ecstasy-group related deficits in associative learning. Psychopharmacology 180:141–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Montgomery C, Fisk JE, Newcombe R, Murphy PN (2005b) The differential effects of ecstasy/polydrug use on executive components: shifting, inhibition, updating and access to semantic memory. Psychopharmacology 182:262–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Murphy PN, Wareing M, Fisk JE, Montgomery C (2009) Executive working memory deficits in Ecstasy/MDMA users: a critical review. Neuropsychobiology 60:159–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Okuda J, Fujii T, Ohtake H, Tsukiura T, Yamadori A, Frith CD, Burgess PW (2007) Differential involvement of regions of rostral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10) in time- and event-based prospective memory. Int J Psychophysiol 64:233–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paraskevaides T, Morgan CJA, Leitz JR, Bisby JA, Rendell PG, Curran HV (2010) Drinking and future thinking: acute effects of alcohol on prospective memory and future simulation. Psychopharmacology 208:301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pope HG Jr, Jacobs A, Mialet JP, Yurgelun-Todd D, Gruber S (1997) Evidence for a sex-specific residual effect of cannabis on visuospatial memory. Psychother Psychosom 66:179–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Raven J, Raven JC, Court JH (1998) Manual for Raven’s progressive matrices and vocabulary scales. Oxford Psychologists Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  35. Rendell PG, Gray TJ, Henry JD, Tolan A (2007a) Prospective memory impairment in ecstasy (MDMA) users. Psychopharmacology 194:497–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rendell PG, Jensen F, Henry JD (2007b) Prospective memory in multiple sclerosis. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 13:410–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rendell PG, Mazur M, Henry JD (2009) Prospective memory impairment in former users of methamphetamine. Psychopharmacology 203:609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reneman L, Booij J, de Bruin K, de Wolff FA, Gunning WB, den Heeten GJ, van den Brink W (2001) Effects of dose, sex, and long-term abstention from use on toxic effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on brain serotonin neurons. Lancet 358:1864–1869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reneman L, Schilt T, de Win MM, Booij J, Schmand B, van den Brink W, Bakker O (2006) Memory function and serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism in ecstasy (MDMA) users. J Psychopharmacol 20:389–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rey A (1964) L’examen clinique in psychologie. Press Universitaire de France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodgers J, Buchanan T, Scholey AB, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Parrott A (2001) Differential effects of Ecstasy and cannabis on self-reports of memory ability; a web-based study. Hum Psychopharmacol 16:619–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rodgers J, Buchanan T, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Parrott AC (2003) Patterns of drug use and the influence of gender on self-reports of memory ability in ecstasy users: a web-based study. J Psychopharmacol 17:389–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roth RM, Isquith PK, Gioia GA (2005) Behavior rating inventory of executive function—adult version. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, Odessa, FlaGoogle Scholar
  44. Solowij N, Hall W, Lee N (1992) Recreational MDMA use in Sydney: a profile of ‘Ecstasy’ users and their experiences with the drug. Br J Addict 87:1161–1172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Spooner DM, Pachana NA (2006) Ecological validity in neuropsychological assessment: a case for greater consideration in research with neurologically intact populations. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21:327–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statistics, 5th edn. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  47. Thompson C, Henry JD, Rendell PG, Withall A, Brodaty H (2010) Prospective memory function in mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 16:318–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tomasi D, Goldstein RZ, Telang F, Alia-Klein N, Volkow ND, Caparelli EC, Maloney T (2007) Widespread disruption in brain activation patterns to a working memory task during cocaine abstinence. Brain Res 1171:83–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wilson BA, Clare L, Baddeley AD, Cockburn J, Watson P, Tate R (1999) The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test—Extended Version (RBMT-E). Thames Valley Test Company, Bury St EdmundsGoogle Scholar
  50. Wilson BA, Emslie H, Foley J, Shiel A, Watson P, Hawkins K, Groot Y, Evans JJ (2005) The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT). Harcourt Assessment, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Florentia Hadjiefthyvoulou
    • 1
  • John E. Fisk
    • 1
  • Catharine Montgomery
    • 2
  • Nikola Bridges
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK
  2. 2.School of Natural Sciences & PsychologyLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations