Psychopharmacology

, Volume 214, Issue 3, pp 625–637 | Cite as

Sertindole restores attentional performance and suppresses glutamate release induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist CPP

  • Mirjana Carli
  • Eleonora Calcagno
  • Ester Mainini
  • Jorn Arnt
  • Roberto W. Invernizzi
Original Investigation

Abstract

Rationale

Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) impairs performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and increases glutamate (GLU) release. Recent research suggests that excessive GLU release may be critical for attention deficits.

Objectives

We tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of the atypical antipsychotics sertindole and clozapine on 3-(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP)-induced performance deficits in the 5-CSRTT and on the CPP-induced GLU release in the mPFC.

Methods

The 5-CSRTT, a test of divided and sustained visual attention providing indices of attentional functioning (accuracy of visual discrimination), response control (anticipatory and perseverative responses) and intracortical microdialysis in conscious rats were used to investigate the effects of sertindole and clozapine.

Results

Low doses of sertindole (0.02–0.32 mg/kg) prevented CPP-induced accuracy deficits, anticipatory over-responding and the rise in GLU release. In contrast, doses ranging from 0.6 to 2.5 mg/kg had no effect or even enhanced the effect of CPP on anticipatory responding. Similarly, 2.5 mg/kg sertindole was unable to reverse CPP-induced rise in GLU release. Clozapine (2.5 mg/kg) prevented accuracy deficits and the increase in anticipatory responding and abolished the rise in GLU release induced by CPP.

Conclusions

These findings show that the ameliorating effects of sertindole and clozapine on NMDA receptor dependent attention deficit is associated with suppression in GLU release in the mPFC. This supports the proposal that suppression in GLU release might be a target for the development of novel drugs aimed at counteracting some aspects of cognitive deficits of schizophrenia.

Keywords

Antipsychotics Cognitive deficits Glutamate Medial prefrontal cortex NMDA receptor -antagonists 

Supplementary material

213_2010_2066_MOESM1_ESM.doc (183 kb)
Fig. S1Effects of sertindole on CPP-induced rise of extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC. Sertindole (S) or vehicle (V) were given orally (arrows) 4 h before the infusion of 100 μM CPP (a) or aCSF (b) through the probe. Horizontal bar indicates the duration of CPP infusion. Experimental groups in a were as follows: V + aCSF (n = 6), V + CPP (n = 6), S0.02 mg/kg + CPP (n = 5), S0.32 mg/kg + CPP (n = 5), S2.5 mg/kg + CPP (n = 6). b V + aCSF the same as in a (dotted line), S0.02 mg/kg + aCSF (n = 5), S0.32 mg/kg + aCSF (n = 5) and S 2.5 mg/kg + aCSF (n = 5). Data are expressed as mean percentages of basal values ± SEM. For the sake of clarity, data from 20 to 220 min were omitted from a. The whole curves are shown in Fig. S1. *P < 0.05 versus basal values (Tukey’s test) (DOC 183 kb)
213_2010_2066_MOESM2_ESM.doc (81 kb)
Fig. S2Effects of clozapine on CPP-induced rise of extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC. Clozapine (CLOZ) or vehicle (V) were given orally (arrows) 20 min before the infusion of 100 μM CPP or aCSF through the probe. Horizontal bar indicates the duration of CPP or aCSF infusion. Experimental groups were as follows: V + V, V + CPP, CLOZ + CPP, CLOZ + aCSF. Data are expressed as percentages of basal values and are the mean ± SEM of five rats per group. *P < 0.05 versus basal values (Tukey’s test) (DOC 81 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirjana Carli
    • 1
  • Eleonora Calcagno
    • 1
  • Ester Mainini
    • 1
  • Jorn Arnt
    • 2
  • Roberto W. Invernizzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”Laboratory of Neurochemistry and BehaviorMilanItaly
  2. 2.Lundbeck Research DKCopenhagenDenmark

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