, Volume 213, Issue 2–3, pp 633–638 | Cite as

Biological aspect of hyperthymic temperament: light, sleep, and serotonin

  • Nobuhiko Hoaki
  • Takeshi TeraoEmail author
  • Yumei Wang
  • Shinjiro Goto
  • Kounosuke Tsuchiyama
  • Noboru Iwata
original investigation



Hyperthymic temperament is one of several premorbid temperaments putatively associated with bipolar disorder. Several reports suggest that depressive patients with hyperthymic temperament may belong to the proposed soft bipolar spectrum.


To investigate biological aspects of hyperthymic temperament, the present study examined daily activity, sleep time, central serotonergic function, and other relevant variables in relation to hyperthymic temperament in healthy subjects.


Fifty six healthy subjects were monitored via the actigraphy system to measure daily total activity, sleep time, and illuminance. A neuroendocrine challenge test was performed to estimate central serotonergic function.


Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher illuminance of daytime, greater fluctuation in sleep time, and lower central serotonergic function significantly and independently predicted hyperthymic temperament scores.


The present findings suggest that light, sleep, and serotonin are crucial factors in understanding hyperthymic temperament, which may be common to bipolar disorder.


Actigraphy Hyperthymic temperament Light Instability hypothesis Serotonin Sleep 



We would like to express our great appreciation to Dr. Tsuyoshi Akiyama for his kind permission of the use of TEMPS—a Japanese version. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (21591523) from Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science and the Research Grant (21-B-2) for Nervous and Mental Disorders from the Ministry of Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobuhiko Hoaki
    • 1
  • Takeshi Terao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yumei Wang
    • 1
  • Shinjiro Goto
    • 1
  • Kounosuke Tsuchiyama
    • 1
  • Noboru Iwata
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychiatryOita University Faculty of MedicineYufu CityIdaigaoka 1-1, Hasama-machiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Clinical PsychologyHiroshima International UniversityHiroshima CityJapan

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