, 202:275 | Cite as

Chronic nicotine improves cognitive performance in a test of attention but does not attenuate cognitive disruption induced by repeated phencyclidine administration

  • Nurith Amitai
  • Athina Markou
Original Investigation



Nicotine-induced cognitive enhancement may be a factor maintaining tobacco smoking, particularly in psychiatric populations suffering from cognitive deficits. Schizophrenia patients exhibit higher smoking rates compared with the general population, suggesting that attempts to self-medicate cognitive schizophrenia deficits may underlie these high smoking levels.


The present study explored pro-cognitive effects of nicotine in a model of schizophrenia-like cognitive dysfunction to test this self-medication hypothesis.

Materials and methods

We investigated whether chronic nicotine (3.16 mg/kg/day, base) would attenuate the performance disruption in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a task assessing various cognitive modalities, including attention) induced by repeated administration of phencyclidine (PCP), an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist that induces cognitive deficits relevant to schizophrenia.


Chronic nicotine administration shortened 5-CSRTT response latencies under baseline conditions. Nicotine-treated rats also made more correct responses and fewer omissions than vehicle-treated rats. Replicating previous studies, repeated PCP administration (2 mg/kg, 30 min before behavioral testing for two consecutive days followed 2 weeks later by five consecutive days of PCP administration) decreased accuracy and increased response latencies, premature responding, and timeout responding. Chronic nicotine did not attenuate these PCP-induced disruptions.


Chronic nicotine had pro-cognitive effects by itself, supporting the hypothesis that cognitive enhancement may contribute to tobacco smoking. At the doses of nicotine and PCP used, however, no support was found for the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of nicotine on cognitive deficits induced by repeated PCP administration, assessed in the 5-CSRTT, are larger than nicotine effects in the absence of PCP.


Cognition Schizophrenia Nicotine Phencyclidine Attention Processing speed 5-CSRTT Rat 



Supported by the National Institute of Mental Health grant MH062527 and Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP) grant 15RT-0022 from the State of California to AM and TRDRP Individual Pre-doctoral Fellowship 15DT-0048 from the State of California to NA. The authors would like to thank Dr. Svetlana Semenova for intellectual input to this work, Mrs. Jessica Benedict and Ms. Chelsea Onifer for technical assistance, Mr. Pete Sharp for excellent assistance with electronics and computer software, and Mr. Mike Arends for outstanding editorial assistance.


  1. Adler LE, Hoffer LD, Wiser A, Freedman R (1993) Normalization of auditory physiology by cigarette smoking in schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 150:1856–1861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amitai N, Semenova S, Markou A (2007) Cognitive-disruptive effects of the psychotomimetic phencyclidine and attenuation by atypical antipsychotic medications in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 193:521–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andreasen JT, Andersen KK, Nielsen EO, Mathiasen L, Mirza NR (2006) Nicotine and clozapine selectively reverse a PCP-induced deficit of PPI in BALB/cByJ but not NMRI mice: comparison with risperidone. Behav Brain Res 167:118–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates T, Mangan G, Stough C, Corballis P (1995) Smoking, processing speed and attention in a choice reaction time task. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 120:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benowitz NL (1988) Pharmacological aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med 319:1318–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilder RM, Goldman RS, Volavka J, Czobor P, Hoptman M, Sheitman B, Lindenmayer JP, Citrome L, McEvoy J, Kunz M, Chakos M, Cooper TB, Horowitz TL, Lieberman JA (2002) Neurocognitive effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 159:1018–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bizarro L, Patel S, Murtagh C, Stolerman IP (2004) Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate. Behav Pharmacol 15:195–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brandeis R, Sapir M, Hafif N, Abraham S, Oz N, Stein E, Fisher A (1995) AF150(S): a new functionally selective M1 agonist improves cognitive performance in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 51:667–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carli M, Robbins TW, Evenden JL, Everitt BJ (1983) Effects of lesions to ascending noradrenergic neurones on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction task in rats; implications for theories of dorsal noradrenergic bundle function based on selective attention and arousal. Behav Brain Res 9:361–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Leon J, Tracy J, McCann E, McGrory A, Diaz FJ (2002) Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking: a replication study in another US psychiatric hospital. Schizophr Res 56:55–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Depatie L, O’Driscoll GA, Holahan AL, Atkinson V, Thavundayil JX, Kin NN, Lal S (2002) Nicotine and behavioral markers of risk for schizophrenia: a double-blind placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:1056–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunne MP, MacDonald D, Hartley LR (1986) The effects of nicotine upon memory and problem solving performance. Physiol Behav 37:849–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dunnett SB, Martel FL (1990) Proactive interference effects on short-term memory in rats: I. Basic parameters and drug effects. Behav Neurosci 104:655–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elvevag B, Goldberg TE (2000) Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is the core of the disorder. Crit Rev Neurobiol 14:1–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Evenden JL (1990) Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:348–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evenden JL, Turpin M, Oliver L, Jennings C (1993) Caffeine and nicotine improve visual tracking by rats: a comparison with amphetamine, cocaine and apomorphine. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 110:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foulds J, Stapleton J, Swettenham J, Bell N, McSorley K, Russell MA (1996) Cognitive performance effects of subcutaneous nicotine in smokers and never-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 127:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Freedman R, Adler LE, Bickford P, Byerley W, Coon H, Cullum CM, Griffith JM, Harris JG, Leonard S, Miller C, Myles-Worsley M, Nagamoto HT, Rose G, Waldo M (1994) Schizophrenia and nicotinic receptors. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2:179–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Geyer MA, Markou A (1995) Animal models of psychiatric disorders. In: Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ (eds) Psychopharmacology: the fourth generation of progress. Raven, New York, pp 787–798Google Scholar
  20. Gioanni Y, Rougeot C, Clarke PB, Lepousé C, Thierry AM, Vidal C (1999) Nicotinic receptors in the rat prefrontal cortex: increase in glutamate release and facilitation of mediodorsal thalamo-cortical transmission. Eur J Neurosci 11:18–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hahn B, Stolerman IP (2002) Nicotine-induced attentional enhancement in rats: effects of chronic exposure to nicotine. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:712–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hahn B, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP (2002) Nicotine-induced enhancement of attention in the five-choice serial reaction time task: the influence of task demands. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Handelmann GE, Contreras PC, O’Donohue TL (1987) Selective memory impairment by phencyclidine in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 140:69–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris JG, Kongs S, Allensworth D, Martin L, Tregellas J, Sullivan B, Zerbe G, Freedman R (2004) Effects of nicotine on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1378–1385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hatcher PD, Brown VJ, Tait DS, Bate S, Overend P, Hagan JJ, Jones DN (2005) 5-HT6 receptor antagonists improve performance in an attentional set shifting task in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 181:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heishman SJ (1998) What aspects of human performance are truly enhanced by nicotine? Addiction 93:317–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heishman SJ, Henningfield JE (2000) Tolerance to repeated nicotine administration on performance, subjective, and physiological responses in nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 152:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heishman SJ, Snyder FR, Henningfield JE (1993) Performance, subjective, and physiological effects of nicotine in non-smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend 34:11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heishman SJ, Taylor RC, Henningfield JE (1994) Nicotine and smoking: a review of effects on human performance. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2:345–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hughes JR (1991) Distinguishing withdrawal relief and direct effects of smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 104:409–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hughes JR, Hatsukami DK, Mitchell JE, Dahlgren LA (1986) Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. Am J Psychiatry 143:993–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Idris NF, Repeto P, Neill JC, Large CH (2005) Investigation of the effects of lamotrigine and clozapine in improving reversal-learning impairments induced by acute phencyclidine and D-amphetamine in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:336–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Javitt DC (1987) Negative schizophrenic symptomatology and the PCP (phencyclidine) model of schizophrenia. Hillside J Clin Psychiatry 9:12–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jentsch JD, Roth RH (1999) The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:201–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jentsch JD, Taylor JR (2001) Impaired inhibition of conditioned responses produced by subchronic administration of phencyclidine to rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 24:66–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jentsch JD, Tran A, Le D, Youngren KD, Roth RH (1997) Subchronic phencyclidine administration reduces mesoprefrontal dopamine utilization and impairs cortical-dependent cognition in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 17:92–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jin J, Yamamoto T, Watanabe S (1997) The involvement of s receptors in the choice reaction performance deficits induced by phencyclidine. Eur J Pharmacol 319:147–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson KM, Jones SM (1990) Neuropharmacology of phencyclidine: basic mechanisms and therapeutic potential. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 30:707–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laurent A, Saoud M, Bougerol T, d’Amato T, Anchisi AM, Biloa-Tang M, Dalery J, Rochet T (1999) Attentional deficits in patients with schizophrenia and in their non-psychotic first-degree relatives. Psychiatry Res 89:147–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levin ED (1988) Psychopharmacological effects in the radial-arm maze. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 12:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Levin ED (1994) Nicotine effects and working memory performance. Rec Adv Tobacco Sci 20:49–66Google Scholar
  42. Levin ED (2002) Nicotinic receptor subtypes and cognitive function. J Neurobiol 53:633–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Levin ED, Lee C, Rose JE, Reyes A, Ellison G, Jarvik M, Gritz E (1990) Chronic nicotine and withdrawal effects on radial-arm maze performance in rats. Behav Neural Biol 53:269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Levin ED, Briggs SJ, Christopher NC, Rose JE (1992) Persistence of chronic nicotine-induced cognitive facilitation. Behav Neural Biol 58:152–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Levin ED, Briggs SJ, Christopher NC, Rose JE (1993) Chronic nicotinic stimulation and blockade effects on working memory. Behav Pharmacol 4:179–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Levin ED, Kim P, Meray R (1996a) Chronic nicotine working and reference memory effects in the 16-arm radial maze: interactions with D1 agonist and antagonist drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 127:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Levin ED, Wilson W, Rose JE, McEvoy J (1996b) Nicotine–haloperidol interactions and cognitive performance in schizophrenics. Neuropsychopharmacology 15:429–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Levin ED, Kaplan S, Boardman A (1997) Acute nicotine interactions with nicotinic and muscarinic antagonists: working and reference memory effects in the 16-arm radial maze. Behav Pharmacol 8:236–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Levin ED, Bettegowda C, Weaver T, Christopher NC (1998a) Nicotine–dizocilpine interactions and working and reference memory performance of rats in the radial-arm maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 61:335–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Levin ED, Conners CK, Silva D, Hinton SC, Meck WH, March J, Rose JE (1998b) Transdermal nicotine effects on attention. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 140:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levin ED, Tizabi Y, Rezvani AH, Caldwell DP, Petro A, Getachew B (2005) Chronic nicotine and dizocilpine effects on regionally specific nicotinic and NMDA glutamate receptor binding. Brain Res 1041:132–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luby ED, Cohen BD, Rosenbaum G, Gottlieb JS, Kelley R (1959) Study of a new schizophrenomimetic drug, sernyl. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 81:363–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Malin DH, Lake JR, Newlin-Maultsby P, Roberts LK, Lanier JG, Carter VA, Cunningham JS, Wilson OB (1992) Rodent model of nicotine abstinence syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 43:779–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mangan GL (1983) The effects of cigarette smoking on verbal learning and retention. J Gen Psychol 108:203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Marks MJ, Stitzel JA, Collins AC (1985) Time course study of the effects of chronic nicotine infusion on drug response and brain receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 235:619–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Meltzer HY (1999) The role of serotonin in antipsychotic drug action. Neuropsychopharmacology 21(2 Suppl):106S–115SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Meltzer HY, McGurk SR (1999) The effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 25:233–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Meyer G (2002) Why people smoke: action paper number 1. In: Ahrens D (ed) Insights: smoking in Wisconsin. Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin Medical School, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  59. Mirza NR, Stolerman IP (1998) Nicotine enhances sustained attention in the rat under specific task conditions. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 138:266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morice R (1990) Cognitive inflexibility and pre-frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and mania. Br J Psychiatry 157:50–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mundy WR, Iwamoto ET (1988a) Actions of nicotine on the acquisition of an autoshaped lever-touch response in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 94:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mundy WR, Iwamoto ET (1988b) Nicotine impairs acquisition of radial maze performance in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 30:119–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Myers CS, Robles O, Kakoyannis AN, Sherr JD, Avila MT, Blaxton TA, Thaker GK (2004) Nicotine improves delayed recognition in schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:334–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nelson HE, Pantelis C, Carruthers K, Speller J, Baxendale S, Barnes TRE (1990) Cognitive functioning and symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia. Psychol Med 20:357–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Parrott AC, Craig D (1992) Cigarette smoking and nicotine gum (0, 2 and 4 mg): effects upon four visual attention tasks. Neuropsychobiology 25:34–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pearlson GD (1981) Psychiatric and medical syndromes associated with phencyclidine (PCP) abuse. Johns Hopkins Med J 148:25–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Peeke SC, Peeke HV (1984) Attention, memory, and cigarette smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 84:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pouzet B, Didriksen M, Arnt J (2002) Effects of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258741 in animal models for schizophrenia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 71:655–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pradhan SN (1984) Phencyclidine (PCP): some human studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 8:493–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Puumala T, Ruotsalainen S, Jakala P, Koivisto E, Riekkinen P Jr, Sirvio J (1996) Behavioral and pharmacological studies on the validation of a new animal model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurobiol Learn Mem 66:198–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Quarta D, Naylor CG, Morris HV, Patel S, Genn RF, Stolerman IP (2007) Different effects of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on attention and the attentional properties of nicotine. Neuropharmacology 53:421–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Quirion R, Hammer RP Jr, Herkenham M, Pert CB (1981) Phencyclidine (angel dust)/s “opiate” receptor: visualization by tritium-sensitive film. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78:5881–5885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rezvani AH, Levin ED (2003) Nicotinic–glutamatergic interactions and attentional performance on an operant visual signal detection task in female rats. Eur J Pharmacol 465:83–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rezvani AH, Caldwell DP, Levin ED (2005) Nicotinic–serotonergic drug interactions and attentional performance in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rezvani AH, Kholdebarin E, Dawson E, Levin ED (2008a) Nicotine and clozapine effects on attentional performance impaired by the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine in female rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 11:63–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rezvani AH, Tizabi Y, Getachew B, Hauser SR, Caldwell DP, Hunter C, Levin ED (2008b) Chronic nicotine and dizocilpine effects on nicotinic and NMDA glutamatergic receptor regulation: Interactions with clozapine actions and attentional performance in rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1030–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robbins TW (2002) The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:362–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rodefer JS, Murphy ER, Baxter MG (2005) PDE10A inhibition reverses subchronic PCP-induced decifits in attentional set-shifting in rats. Eur J Neurosci 21:1070–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rodefer JS, Nguyen TN, Karlsson JJ, Arnt J (2007) Reversal of subchronic PCP-induced deficits in attentional set shifting in rats by sertindole and a 5-HT6 receptor antagonist: comparison among antipsychotics. Neuropsychopharmacology (in press) doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301654
  80. Rusted JM, Warburton DM (1992) Facilitation of memory by post-trial administration of nicotine: evidence for an attentional explanation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 108:452–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sacco KA, Termine A, Seyal A, Dudas MM, Vessicchio JC, Krishnan-Sarin S, Jatlow PI, Wexler BE, George TP (2005) Effects of cigarette smoking on spatial working memory and attentional deficits in schizophrenia: involvement of nicotinic receptor mechanisms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:649–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sanger DJ, Jackson A (1989) Effects of phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists on the schedule-controlled behavior of rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 248:1215–1221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Schmidt CJ, Sorensen SM, Kehne JH, Carr AA, Palfreyman MG (1995) The role of 5-HT2A receptors in antipsychotic activity. Life Sci 56:2209–2222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schmidt AW, Lebel LA, Howard HR Jr, Zorn SH (2001) Ziprasidone: a novel antipsychotic agent with a unique human receptor binding profile. Eur J Pharmacol 425:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schwartz RD, Kellar KJ (1985) In vivo regulation of [3H]acetylcholine recognition sites in brain by nicotinic cholinergic drugs. J Neurochem 45:427–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Semenova S, Stolerman IP, Markou A (2007) Chronic nicotine administration improves attention while nicotine withdrawal induces performance deficits in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87:360–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Semenova S, Geyer MA, Sutcliffe JG, Markou A, Hedlund PB (2008) Inactivation of the 5-HT7 receptor partially blocks phencyclidine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. Biol Psychiatry 63:98–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sharma T, Antonova L (2003) Cognitive function in schizophrenia: deficits, functional consequences, and future treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am 26:25–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith RC, Singh A, Infante M, Khandat A, Kloos A (2002) Effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine nasal spray on psychiatric symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:479–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith RC, Warner-Cohen J, Matute M, Butler E, Kelly E, Vaidhyanathaswamy S, Khan A (2006) Effects of nicotine nasal spray on cognitive function in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:637–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Spielewoy C, Markou A (2004) Strain-specificity in nicotine attenuation of phencyclidine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice: relevance to smoking in schizophrenia patients. Behav Genet 34:343–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steinpreis RE (1996) The behavioral and neurochemical effects of phenyclidine in humans and animals: some implications for modeling psychosis. Behav Brain Res 74:45–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stolerman IP, Mirza NR, Hahn B, Shoaib M (2000) Nicotine in an animal model of attention. Eur J Pharmacol 393:147–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Thompson DM, Winsauer PJ (1986) Nicotine can attenuate the disruptive effects of phencyclidine on repeated acquisition in monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Warburton DM (1990) Psychopharmacological aspects of nicotine. In: Wonnacott S, Russell MAH, Stolerman IP (eds) Nicotine psychopharmacology: molecular, cellular and behavioural aspects. Oxford Science, Oxford, pp 77–112Google Scholar
  96. Warburton DM, Rusted JM, Fowler J (1992) A comparison of the attentional and consolidation hypotheses for the facilitation of memory by nicotine. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 108:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wesnes K, Warburton DM (1983) Effects of smoking on rapid information processing performance. Neuropsychobiology 9:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wesnes K, Warburton DM (1984a) The effects of cigarettes of varying yield on rapid information processing performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 82:338–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wesnes K, Warburton DM (1984b) Effects of scopolamine and nicotine on human rapid information processing performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 82:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Winger G, Hursh SR, Casey KL, Woods JH (2002) Relative reinforcing strength of three N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists with different onsets of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301:690–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wykes T, Reeder C, Corner J (2000) The prevalence and stability of an executive processing deficit, response inhibition, in people with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 46:241–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations