, Volume 200, Issue 1, pp 1–26 | Cite as

The role of impulsive behavior in drug abuse

  • Jennifer L. PerryEmail author
  • Marilyn E. Carroll



Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has recently been recognized as a factor contributing to enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse.


In the present review, we focus on two facets of impulsivity (and tasks that measure them): (1) impulsive choice (delay discounting task) and (2) inhibitory failure (go/no-go, stop signal reaction time, and five-choice serial reaction time tasks). We also describe how performance on each of these tasks is associated with drug-related behavior during phases of drug abuse that capture the essential features of addiction (acquisition, escalation, and reinstatement of drug-seeking after drug access has terminated). Three hypotheses (H) regarding the relationship between impulsivity and drug abuse are discussed: (1) increased levels of impulsivity lead to drug abuse (H1), (2) drugs of abuse increase impulsivity (H2), and (3) impulsivity and drug abuse are associated through a common third factor (H3).


Impulsivity expressed as impulsive choice or inhibitory failure plays a role in several key transition phases of drug abuse. There is evidence to support all three nonexclusive hypotheses. Increased levels of impulsivity lead to acquisition of drug abuse (H1) and subsequent escalation or dysregulation of drug intake. Drugs of abuse may increase impulsivity (H2), which is an additional contributor to escalation/dysregulation. Abstinence, relapse, and treatment may be influenced by both H1 and H2. In addition, there is a relationship between impulsivity and other drug abuse vulnerability factors, such as sex, hormonal status, reactivity to nondrug rewards, and early environmental experiences that may impact drug intake during all phases of addiction (H3). Relating drug abuse and impulsivity in phases of addiction via these three hypotheses provides a heuristic model from which future experimental questions can be addressed.


Abstinence Acquisition Animal models Delay discounting Drug abuse Dysregulation Escalation Five-choice serial reaction time task Go/no-go task Impulsive choice Impulsivity Inhibition Relapse Stop signal reaction time task Treatment 



We would like to thank the following people for their comments on earlier versions of this manuscript: Justin Anker, Michael Bardo, Ph.D., Jonathan Gewirtz, Ph.D., Erin Larson, Ph.D., Joshua Lile, Ph.D., Sarah Nelson, Jennifer Newman, Ph.D., J. Bruce Overmier, Ph.D., Jason Ross, M.S., William Stoops, Ph.D., Mark Thomas, Ph.D., and Thomas Wooters, M.A. We also thank NIH/NIDA for grant support: R01 DA03240 and K05 DA15267 (MEC) and F31 DA020237 (JLP).


  1. Acheson A, Reynolds B, Richards JB, de Wit H (2006) Diazepam impairs behavioral inhibition but not delay discounting or risk taking in healthy adults. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:190–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriani W, Giannakopoulou D, Bokulic Z, Jernej B, Alleva E, Laviola G (2006) Response to novelty, social and self-control behaviors, in rats exposed to neonatal anoxia: modulatory effects of an enriched environment. Psychopharmacology 184:155–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed SH, Koob GF (1998) Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: change in hedonic set point. Science 282:298–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed SH, Koob GF (1999) Long-lasting increase in the set point for cocaine self-administration after escalation in rats. Psychopharmacol 146:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alterman AI, McKay JR, Mulvaney FD, McLellan AT (1996) Prediction of attrition from day hospital treatment in lower socioeconomic cocaine-dependent men. Drug Alcohol Depend 40:227–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alterman AI, Kampman K, Boardman CR, Cacciola JS, Rutherford MJ, McKay JR, Maany I (1997) A cocaine-positive baseline urine predicts outpatient treatment attrition and failure to attain initial abstinence. Drug Alcohol Depend 46:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Text revision, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Anglin MD, Hser YI, McGlothlin WH (1987) Sex differences in addict careers. 2. Becoming addicted. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 13:59–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anker JJ, Larson EB, Gliddon LA, Carroll ME (2007) Effects of progesterone on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in female rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:472–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anker JJ, Carroll ME (2008) Impulsivity on a go/no-go for i.v. Cocaine and food in male and female rats selectivity bred for high and low saccharin intake. Behav Pharmacol (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Audrain-McGovern J, Rodriguez D, Tercyak KP, Epstein LH, Goldman P, Wileyto EP (2004) Applying a behavioral economic framework to understanding adolescent smoking. Psychol Addict Behav 18:64–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker F, Johnson MW, Bickel WK (2003) Delay discounting in current and never-before cigarette smokers: similarities and differences across commodity, sign, and magnitude. J Abnorm Psychology 112:382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bardo MT, Dwoskin LP (2004) Biological connection between novelty- and drug-seeking motivational systems. Nebr Symp Motiv 50:127–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bardo MT, Klebaur JE, Valone JM, Deaton C (2001) Environmental enrichment decreases intravenous self-administration of amphetamine in female and male rats. Psychopharmacol 155:278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barratt ES, Patton JH (1983) Impulsivity: cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological correlates. In: Zuckerman M (ed) Biological bases of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and anxiety. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 77–122Google Scholar
  16. Bechara A, Dolan S, Denburg N, Hindes A, Anderson SW, Nathan PE (2001) Decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia 39:376–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Belin D, Mar AC, Dalley JW, Robbins RW, Everitt BJ (2008) High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking. Science 320:1652–1355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beninger RJ, Hanson DR, Phillips AG (1981) The acquisition of responding with conditioned reinforcement: effects of cocaine, (+)amphetamine and pipradrol. Br J Pharmacol 74:149–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bickel WK, Marsch LA (2001) Toward a behavioral economic understanding of drug dependence: delay discounting processes. Addiction 96:73–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bickel WK, Odum AL, Madden GJ (1999) Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacol 146:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bizarro L, Stolerman IP (2003) Attentional effects of nicotine and amphetamine in rats at different levels of motivation. Psychopharmacol 170:271–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bizarro L, Patel S, Stolerman IP (2003) Comprehensive deficits in performance of an attentional task produced by co-administering alcohol and nicotine to rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 72:287–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bizarro L, Patel S, Murtagh C, Stolerman IP (2004) Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate. Behav Pharmacol 15:195–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blondel A, Simon H, Sanger DJ, Moser P (1999) The effect of repeated nicotine administration on the performance of drug-naïve rats in a five-choice serial reaction time task. Behav Pharmacol 10:665–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blondel A, Sanger DJ, Moser PC (2000) Characterisation of the effects of nicotine in the five-choice serial reaction time task in rats: antagonist studies. Psychopharmacol 149:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brecht M-L, O’Brien A, von Mayrhauser C, Anglin MD (2004) Methamphetamine use behaviors and gender differences. Addict Behav 29:89–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell UC, Carroll ME (2000) Acquisition of drug self-administration: environmental and pharmacological interventions. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8:312–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cardinal RN, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2000) The effects of d-amphetamine, chlordiazepoxide, alpha-flupenthixol and behavioural manipulations on choice of signalled and unsignalled delayed reinforcement in rats. Psychopharmacol 152:362–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carli M, Robbins TW, Evenden JL, Everitt BJ (1983) Effects of lesions to ascending noradrenergic neurones on performance of a 5-choice serial reaction task in rats; implications for theories of dorsal noradrenergic bundle function based on selective attention and arousal. Behav Brain Res 9:361–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carr KD (2002) Augmentation of drug reward by chronic food restriction: behavioral evidence and underlying mechanisms. Physiol Behav 76:353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carroll ME (1998) Acquisition and reacquisition (relapse) of drug abuse: modulation by alternative reinforcers. NIDA Res Monogr 169:6–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Carroll ME (1999) Interactions between food and addiction. In: Niesink R, Hoefakker R, Westera W, Jaspers R, Kornet L, Boobis S (eds) Neurobehavioral toxicology and addiction: food, drugs and environment. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 286–311Google Scholar
  33. Carroll ME, Roth ME, Voeller RK, Nguyen PD (2000) Acquisition of oral phencyclidine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: effect of sex. Psychopharmacol 149:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Carroll ME, Morgan AD, Lynch WJ, Campbell UC, Dess NK (2002) Intravenous cocaine and heroin self-administration in rats selectively bred for differential saccharin intake: phenotype and sex differences. Psychopharmacol 161:304–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carroll ME, Lynch WJ, Roth ME, Morgan AD, Cosgrove KP (2004) Sex and estrogen influence drug abuse. Trends Pharmacol Sci 25:273–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carroll ME, Batulis D, Landry K, Morgan AD (2005) Sex differences in the escalation of oral phencyclidine (PCP) self-administration under FR and PR schedules in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacol 180:414–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carroll ME, Anderson MM, Morgan AD (2007a) Higher locomotor response to cocaine in female (vs. male) rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 88:94–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Carroll ME, Anderson MM, Morgan AD (2007b) Regulation of intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake. Psychopharmacol 190:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Carroll ME, Anker JJ, Mach JL, Newman JL, Perry JL (2008a) Delay discounting as a predictor of drug abuse. In: Madden GJ, Critehfield TS, Bickel WK (eds) Impulsivity: theory, science, and neiroscience of discounting. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC (in press)Google Scholar
  40. Carroll ME, Morgan AD, Anker JJ, Perry JL (2008b) Selective breeding for differential saccharin intake as an animal model of drug abuse. Behav Pharmacol (in press)Google Scholar
  41. Chamberlain SR, del Campo N, Dowson J, Muller U, Clark L, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2007) Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 62:977–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chambers RA, Taylor JR, Potenza MN (2003) Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period of addiction vulnerability. Am J Psychiatry 160:1041–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Charrier D, Thiebot MH (1996) Effects of psychotropic drugs on rat responding in an operant paradigm involving choice between delayed reinforcers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 54:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Coffey SF, Gudleski GD, Saladin ME, Brady KT (2003) Impulsivity and rapid discounting of delayed hypothetical rewards in cocaine-dependent individuals. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 11:18–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Crean JP, de Wit H, Richards JB (2000) Reward discounting as a measure of impulsive behavior in a psychiatric outpatient population. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dalen L, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Hall M, Remington B (2004) Inhibitory deficits, delay aversion and preschool AD/HD: implications for the dual pathway model. Neural Plast 11:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dallery J, Locey ML (2005) Effects of acute and chronic nicotine on impulsive choice in rats. Behav Pharmacol 16:15–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dallery J, Raiff BR (2007) Delay discounting predicts cigarette smoking in a laboratory model of abstinence reinforcement. Psychopharmacol 190:485–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dalley JW, Theobald DEH, Pereira EA, Li PM, Robbins TW (2002) Specific abnormalities in serotonin release in the prefrontal cortex of isolation-reared rats measured during behavioural performance of a task assessing visuospatial attention and impulsivity. Psychopharmacol 164:329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dalley JW, Laane K, Pena Y, Theobald DEH, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2005a) Attentional and motivational deficits in rats withdrawn from intravenous self-administration of cocaine or heroin. Psychopharmacol 182:579–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dalley JW, Theobald DEH, Berry D, Milstein JA, Laane K, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2005b) Cognitive sequelae of intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats: evidence for selective effects on attentional performance. Neuropsychopharmacol 30:525–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dalley JW, Fryer TD, Brichard L, Robinson ES, Theobald DE, Laane K, Pena Y, Murphy ER, Shah Y, Probst K, Abakumova I, Aigbirhio FI, Richards HK, Hong Y, Baron JC, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2007a) Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement. Science 315:1267–1270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dalley JW, Laane K, Theobald DEH, Pena Y, Bruce CC, Huszar AC, Wojcieszek M, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2007b) Enduring deficits in sustained visual attention during withdrawal of intravenous methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration in rats: results from a comparative study with d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacol 32:1195–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. De Bellis MD (2002) Developmental traumatology: a contributory mechanism for alcohol and substance use disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinol 27:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. de Vries TJ, Schoffelmeer ANM, Binnekade R, Mulder AH, Vanderschuren LJMJ (1998) Drug-induced reinstatement of heroin- and cocaine-seeking behaviour following long-term extinction is associated with expression of behavioural sensitization. Eur J Neurosci 10:3565–3571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. de Wit H, Richards JB (2004) Dual determinants of drug use in humans: reward and impulsivity. Nebr Symp Motiv 50:19–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. de Wit H, Crean J, Richards JB (2000) Effects of d-amphetamine and ethanol on a measure of behavioral inhibition in humans. Behav Neurosci 114:830–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. de Wit H, Enggasser JL, Richards JB (2002) Acute administration of d-amphetamine decreases impulsivity in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacol 27:813–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Deroche-Gamonet V, Belin D, Piazza PV (2004) Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science 305:1014–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dess NK, Badia-Elder NE, Thiele TE, Kiefer SW, Blizard DA (1998) Ethanol consumption in rats selectively bred for differential saccharin intake. Alcohol 16:275–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dews PB (1958) Studies on behavior. IV Stimulant actions of methamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 122:137–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Dews PB, Wenger GR (1977) Rate-dependency of the behavioral effects of amphetamine. In: Thompson T, Dews PB (eds) Advances in behavioral pharmacology, vol. 1. Academic, New York, pp 167–227Google Scholar
  63. Diergaarde L, Pattij T, Poortvliet I, Hogenboom F, de Vries W, Schoffelmeer ANM, de Vries TJ (2008) Impulsive choice and impulsive action predict vulnerability to distinct stages of nicotine seeking in rats. Biol Psychiatry 63:301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dinn WM, Aycicegi A, Harris CL (2004) Cigarette smoking in a student sample: neurocognitive and clinical correlates. Addict Behav 29:107–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Doran N, Spring B, McChargue D, Pergadia M, Richmond M (2004) Impulsivity and smoking relapse. Nicotine Tob Res 6:641–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Doran N, Spring B, McChargue D (2007) Effect of impulsivity on craving and behavioral reactivity to smoking cues. Psychopharmacol 194:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Eagle DM, Robbins TW (2003) Inhibitory control in rats performing a stop-signal reaction-time task: effects of lesions of the medial striatum and d-amphetamine. Behav Neurosci 117:1302–1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Eagle DM, Tufft MR, Goodchild HL, Robbins TW (2007) Differential effects of modafinil and methylphenidate on stop-signal reaction time task performance in the rat, and interactions with the dopamine receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol. Psychopharmacol 192:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Easdon CM, Vogel-Sprott M (2000) Alcohol and behavioural control: impaired reponse inhibition and flexibility in social drinkers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 8:387–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Easdon C, Izenberg A, Armilio ML, Yu H, Alain C (2005) Alcohol consumption impairs stimulus- and error-related processing during a go/no-go task. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 25:873–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ehrman RN, Robbins SJ, Cornish JW (2001) Results of a baseline urine test predict levels of cocaine use during treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend 62:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Epstein DH, Preston KL, Stewart J, Shaham Y (2006) Toward a model of drug relapse: an assessment of the validity of the reinstatement procedure. Psychopharmacol 189:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Evenden JL (1999) Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacol 146:348–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Evenden JL, Ryan CN (1996) The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats: the effects of drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement. Psychopharmacol 128:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Evenden JL, Ryan CN (1999) The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats VI: the effects of ethanol and selective serotonergic drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement. Psychopharmacol 146:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Farrar AM, Kieres AK, Hausknecht KA, de Wit H, Richards JB (2003) Effects of reinforcer magnitude on an animal model of impulsive behavior. Behav Processes 64:261–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Feola TW, de Wit H, Richards JB (2000) Effects of d-amphetamine and alcohol on a measure of behavioral inhibition in rats. Behav Neurosci 114:838–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Field M, Santarcangelo M, Sumnall H, Goudie A, Cole J (2006) Delay discounting and the behavioural economics of cigarette purchases in smokers: the effects of nicotine deprivation. Psychopharmacol 186:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Field M, Christiansen P, Cole J, Goudie A (2007) Delay discounting and the alcohol Stroop in heavy drinking adolescents. Addiction 102:579–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fillmore MT (2003) Drug abuse as a problem of impaired control: current approaches and findings. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2:179–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Fillmore MT, Blackburn J (2002) Compensating for alcohol-induced impairment: alcohol expectancies and behavioral disinhibition. J Stud Alcohol 63:237–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fillmore MT, Rush CR (2002) Impaired inhibitory control of behavior in chronic cocaine users. Drug Alcohol Depend 66:265–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fillmore MT, Vogel-Sprott M (1999) An alcohol model of impaired inhibitory control and its treatment in humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fillmore MT, Weafer J (2004) Alcohol impairment of behavior in men and women. Addiction 99:1237–1246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fillmore MT, Rush CR, Kelly TH, Hays L (2001) Triazolam impairs inhibitory control of behavior in humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 9:363–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fillmore MT, Rush CR, Hays L (2002) Acute effects of oral cocaine on inhibitory control of behavior in humans. Drug Alcohol Depend 67:157–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Fillmore MT, Rush CR, Marczinski CA (2003) Effects of d-amphetamine on behavioral control in stimulant abusers: the role of prepotent response tendencies. Drug Alcohol Depend 71:143–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Fillmore MT, Kelly TH, Martin CA (2005a) Effects of d-amphetamine in human models of information processing and inhibitory control. Drug Alcohol Depend 77:151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Fillmore MT, Rush CR, Hays L (2005b) Cocaine improved inhibitory control in a human model of response conflict. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:327–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Fillmore MT, Rush CR, Hays L (2006) Acute effects of cocaine in two models of inhibitory control: implications of non-linear dose effects. Addiction 101:1323–1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Fuchs RA, Evans KA, Mehta RH, Case JM, See RE (2005) Influence of sex and estrous cyclicity on conditioned cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacol 179:662–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Giordano LA, Bickel WK, Loewenstein G, Jacobs EA, Marsch L, Badger GJ (2002) Mild opioid deprivation increases the degree that opioid-dependent outpatients discount delayed heroin and money. Psychopharmacol 163:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Grant JE, Potenza MN (2006) Compulsive aspects of impulse-control disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 29:539–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Green TA, Gehrke BJ, Bardo MT (2002) Environmental enrichment decreases intravenous amphetamine self-administration in rats: dose-response functions for fixed- and progressive-ratio schedules. Psychopharmacol 162:373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Green L, Myerson J, Holt DD, Slevin JR, Estle SJ (2004) Discounting of delayed food rewards in pigeons and rats: is there a magnitude effect? J Exp Anal Behav 81:39–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Grigson PS (2002) Like drugs for chocolate: separate rewards modulated by common mechanisms? Physiol Behav 76:389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hahn B, Shoaib M, Stolerman IP (2002) Effects of dopamine receptor antagonists on nicotine-induced attentional enhancement. Behav Pharm 13:621–632Google Scholar
  98. Heil SH, Johnson MW, Higgins ST, Bickel WK (2006) Delay discounting in currently using and currently abstinent cocaine-dependent outpatients and non-drug-using matched controls. Addict Behav 31:1290–1294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hellemans KG, Nobrega JN, Olmstead MC (2005) Early environmental experience alters baseline and ethanol-induced cognitive impulsivity: relationship to forebrain 5-HT1A receptor binding. Behav Brain Res 159:207–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hernandez-Avila CA, Rounsaville BJ, Kranzler HR (2004) Opioid-, cannabis- and alcohol-dependent women show more rapid progression to substance abuse treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend 74:265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hester R, Garavan H (2004) Executive dysfunction in cocaine addiction: evidence for discordant frontal, cingulate, and cerebellar activity. J Neurosci 24:11017–11022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Heyman GM, Gibb SP (2006) Delay discounting in college cigarette chippers. Behav Pharmacol 17:669–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hill RT (1970) Facilitation of conditioned reinforcement as a mechanism of psychomotor stimulation. In: Costa E, Garattini S (eds) Amphetamine and related compounds. Raven, New York, pp 781–795Google Scholar
  104. Hoffman WF, Moore M, Templin R, McFarland B, Hitzemann RJ, Mitchell SH (2006) Neuropsychological function and delay discounting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Psychopharmacol 188:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hu M, Becker JB (2003) Effects of sex and estrogen on behavioral sensitization to cocaine in rats. J Neurosci 23:693–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Isles AR, Humby T, Wilkinson LS (2003) Measuring impulsivity in mice using a novel operant delayed reinforcement task: effects of behavioural manipulations and d-amphetamine. Psychopharmacol 170:376–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jackson LR, Robinson TE, Becker JB (2006) Sex differences and hormonal influences on acquisition of cocaine self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacol 31:129–138Google Scholar
  108. Jentsch JD, Taylor JR (2003) Sex-related differences in spatial divided attention and motor impulsivity in rats. Behav Neurosci 117:76–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Johnson MW, Bickel WK (2002) Within-subject comparison of real and hypothetical money rewards in delay discounting. J Exp Anal Behav 77:129–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Johnson MW, Bickel WK, Baker F (2007) Moderate drug use and delay discounting: a comparison of heavy, light, and never smokers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:187–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kampman KM, Alterman AI, Volpicelli JR, Maany I, Muller ES, Luce DD, Mulholland EM, Jawad AF, Parikh GA, Mulvaney FD, Weinrieb RM, O’Brien CP (2001) Cocaine withdrawal symptoms and initial urine toxicology results predict treatment attrition in outpatient cocaine dependence treatment. Psychol Addict Behav 15:52–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Katz JL, Higgins ST (2003) The validity of the reinstatement model of craving and relapse to drug use. Psychopharmacol 168:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Kaufman JN, Ross TJ, Stein EA, Garavan H (2003) Cingulate hypoactivity in cocaine users during a GO-NOGO task as revealed by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 23:7839–7843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kelleher RT, Morse WH (1968) Determinants of the specificity of the behavioral effects of drugs. Ergeb Physiol 60:1–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kelley AE, Schochet T, Landry CF (2004) Risk taking and novelty seeking in adolescence: introduction to part I. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kieres AK, Hausknecht KA, Farrar AM, Acheson A, de Wit H, Richards JB (2004) Effects of morphine and naltrexone on impulsive decision making in rats. Psychopharmacol 173:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kirby KN (1997) Bidding on the future: evidence against normative discounting of delayed rewards. J Exp Psychol Gen 126:54–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kirby KN, Marakovic NN (1996) Delay-discounting probabilistic rewards: rates decrease as amounts increase. Psychon Bull Rev 3:100–104Google Scholar
  119. Kirby KN, Petry NM (2004) Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls. Addiction 99:461–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kirby KN, Petry NM, Bickel WK (1999) Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. J Exp Psychol Gen 128:78–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kollins SH (2002) Delay discounting is associated with substance use in college students. Addict Behav 28:1167–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Koob GF, Kreek MJ (2007) Stress, dysregulation of drug reward pathways, and the transition to drug dependence. Am J Psychiatry 164:1149–1159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Koob GF, Le Moal M (2001) Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacol 24:97–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kreek MJ, Nielsen DA, Butelman ER, LaForge KS (2005) Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nat Neurosci 8:1450–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Krishnan-Sarin S, Reynolds B, Duhig AM, Smith A, Liss T, McFetridge A, Cavallo DA, Carroll KM, Potenza MN (2007) Behavioral impulsivity predicts treatment outcome in a smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend 88:79–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Labouvie EW, McGee CR (1986) Relation of personality to alcohol and drug use in adolescence. J Consult Clin Psychol 54:289–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Larson EB, Carroll ME (2005) Wheel running as a predictor of cocaine self-administration and reinstatement in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 82:590–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Larson EB, Roth ME, Anker JJ, Carroll ME (2005) Effect of short- vs. long-term estrogen on reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in female rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 82:98–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Larson EB, Anker JJ, Gliddon LA, Carroll ME (2007) Effects of estrogen and progesterone on the escalation of cocaine self-administration in female rats during extended access. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:461–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Le Dzung A, Funk D, Harding S, Juzytsch W, Li Z, Fletcher PJ (2008) Intra-median raphe nucleus (MRN) infusions of muscimol, a GABA-A receptor agonist reinstate alcohol seeking in rats: role of impulsivity and reward. Psychopharmacol 195:605–615Google Scholar
  131. Le Moal M, Koob GF (2007) Drug addiction: pathways to the disease and pathophysiological perspectives. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 17:37–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lenoir M, Ahmed SH (2008) Supply of a nondrug substitute reduces escalated heroin consumption. Neuropsychopharmacol (epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  133. Li CS, Milivojevic V, Kemp K, Hong K, Sinha R (2006) Performance monitoring and stop signal inhibition in abstinent patients with cocaine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 85:205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Logan GD, Cowan WB, Davis KA (1984) On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a model and a method. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:276–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Logue AW (1988) Research on self-control: an integrating framework. Behav Brain Sci 11:665–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Logue AW, Pena-Correal TE, Rodriguez ML, Kabela E (1986) Self-control in adult humans: variation in positive reinforcer amount and delay. J Exp Anal Behav 46:159–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Logue AW, Tobin H, Chelonis JJ, Wang RY, Geary N, Schachter S (1992) Cocaine decreases self-control in rats: a preliminary report. Psychopharmacol 109:245–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lynch WJ (2006) Sex differences in vulnerability to drug self-administration. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 14:34–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lynch WJ, Carroll ME (1999) Sex differences in the acquisition of intravenously self-administered cocaine and heroin in rats. Psychopharmacol 144:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Lynch WJ, Carroll ME (2000) Reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in rats: sex differences. Psychopharmacol 148:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lynch WJ, Arizzi MN, Carroll ME (2000) Effects of sex and the estrous cycle on regulation of intravenously self-administered cocaine in rats. Psychopharmacol 152:132–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lynch WJ, Roth ME, Mickelberg JL, Carroll ME (2001) Role of estrogen in the acquisition of intravenously self-administered cocaine in female rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68:641–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Lynch WJ, Roth ME, Carroll ME (2002) Biological basis of sex differences in drug abuse: preclinical and clinical studies. Psychopharmacol 164:121–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Madden GJ, Petry NM, Badger GJ, Bickel WK (1997) Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control participants: drug and monetary rewards. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 5:256–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Madden GJ, Bickel WK, Jacobs EA (1999) Discounting of delayed rewards in opioid-dependent outpatients: exponential or hyperbolic discounting functions? Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:284–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT (2003) Dissociative antagonistic effects of caffeine on alcohol-induced impairment of behavioral control. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 11:228–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT (2005a) Alcohol increases reliance on cues that signal acts of control. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:15–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT (2005b) Compensating for alcohol-induced impairment of control: effects on inhibition and activation of behavior. Psychopharmacol 181:337–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Marczinski CA, Abroms BD, Van Selst M, Fillmore MT (2005) Alcohol-induced impairment of behavioral control: differential effects on engaging vs. disengaging responses. Psychopharmacol 182:452–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Mazur JE (1987) An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement. In: Commons ML, Mazur JE, Nevin JA, Rachlin H (eds) Qualitative analyses of behavior: the effect of delay and of intervening events on reinforcement value. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 55–73Google Scholar
  151. Mazur JE, Logue A (1978) Choice in a self-control paradigm: effects of a fading procedure. J Exp Anal Behav 30:11–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. McDonald J, Schleifer L, Richards JB, de Wit H (2003) Effects of THC on behavioral measures of impulsivity in humans. Neuropsychopharmacol 28:1356–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mirza NR, Stolerman IP (1998) Nicotine enhances sustained attention in the rat under specific task conditions. Psychopharmacology 138:266–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Mischel W, Shoda Y, Peake PK (1988) The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. J Pers Soc Psychol 54:687–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mitchell S (1999) Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Psychopharmacol 146:455–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mitchell SH (2004) Measuring impulsivity and modeling its association with cigarette smoking. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 3:261–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mitchell SH, Reeves JM, Li N, Phillips TJ (2006) Delay discounting predicts behavioral sensitization to ethanol in outbred WSC mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:429–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Moeller FG, Dougherty DM, Barratt ES, Schmitz JM, Swann AC, Grabowski J (2001) The impact of impulsivity on cocaine use and retention in treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat 21:193–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Monterosso JR, Aron AR, Cordova X, Xu J, London ED (2005) Deficits in response inhibition associated with chronic methamphetamine abuse. Drug Alcohol Depend 79:273–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Monterosso JR, Ainslie G, Xu J, Cordova X, Domier CP, London ED (2007) Frontoparietal cortical activity of methamphetamine-dependent and comparison subjects performing a delay discounting task. Hum Brain Mapp 28:383–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Morgan D, Brebner K, Lynch WJ, Roberts DC (2002) Increases in the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine after particular histories of reinforcement. Behav Pharmacol 13:389–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mulvihill LE, Skilling TA, Vogel-Sprott M (1997) Alcohol and the ability to inhibit behavior in men and women. J Stud Alcohol 58:600–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Nagoshi CT, Wilson JR, Rodriguez LA (1991) Impulsivity, sensation seeking, and behavioral and emotional responses to alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 15:661–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Navarra R, Graf R, Huang Y, Logue S, Comery T, Hughes Z, Day M (2008) Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attention and impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:34–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Newman JP, Widom CS, Nathan S (1985) Passive avoidance in syndromes of disinhibition: Psychopathology and extraversion. J Pers Soc Psychol 48:1316–1327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Nisbett RE, Wilson TD (1977) Telling more than we can know: verbal reports on mental processes. Psychol Rev 84:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Noel X, Van der Linden M, d’Acremont M, Bechara A, Dan B, Hanak C, Verbanck P (2007) Alcohol cues increase cognitive impulsivity in individuals with alcoholism. Psychopharmacol 192:291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Odum AL, Madden GJ, Badger GJ, Bickel WK (2000) Needle sharing in opioid-dependent outpatients: psychological processes underlying risk. Drug Alcohol Depend 60:259–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ohmura Y, Takahashi T, Kitamura N (2005) Discounting delayed and probabilistic monetary gains and losses by smokers of cigarettes. Psychopharmacol 182:508–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Olmstead MC (2006) Animal models of drug addiction: where do we go from here? Q J Exp Psychol 59:625–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Ortner CN, MacDonald TK, Olmstead MC (2003) Alcohol intoxication reduces impulsivity in the delay-discounting paradigm. Alcohol 38:151–156Google Scholar
  172. Paine TA, Olmstead MC (2004) Cocaine disrupts both behavioural inhibition and conditional discrimination in rats. Psychopharmacol 175:443–450Google Scholar
  173. Paine TA, Dringenberg HC, Olmstead MC (2003) Effects of chronic cocaine on impulsivity: relation to cortical serotonin mechanisms. Behav Brain Res 147:135–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Paine TA, Tomasiewicz HC, Zhang K, Carlezon WA (2007) Sensitivity of the five-choice serial reaction time task to the effects of various psychotropic drugs in sprague-dawley rats. Biol Psychiatry 62:687–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Perry JL, Larson EB, German JP, Madden GJ, Carroll ME (2005) Impulsivity (delay discounting) as a predictor of acquisition of IV cocaine self-administration in female rats. Psychopharmacol 178:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Perry JL, Morgan AD, Anker JJ, Dess NK, Carroll ME (2006) Escalation of i.v. cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats bred for high and low saccharin intake. Psychopharmacol 186:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Perry JL, Nelson SE, Anderson MM, Morgan AD, Carroll ME (2007) Impulsivity (delay discounting) for food and cocaine in male and female rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:822–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Perry JL, Nelson SE, Carroll ME (2008a) Impulsive choice as a predictor of acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in male and female rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmachol 16:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Perry JL, Stairs DJ, Bardo MT (2008b) Delay discounting an environmental enrichment: effects of d-amphetamine and methylphenidate. Behav Brain Res (epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
  180. Petry NM (2001) Delay discounting of money and alcohol in actively using alcoholics, currently abstinent alcoholics, and controls. Psychopharmacol 154:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Petry NM, Tedford J, Austin M, Nich C, Carroll KM, Rounsaville BJ (2004) Prize reinforcement contingency management for treating cocaine users: how low can we go, and with whom? Addiction 99:349–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Piazza PV, Le Moal M (1998) The role of stress in drug self-administration. Trends Pharmacol Sci 19:67–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Pietras CJ, Cherek DR, Lane SD, Tcheremissine OV, Steinberg JL (2003) Effects of methylphenidate on impulsive choice in adult humans. Psychopharmacol 170:390–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Pitts RC, McKinney AP (2005) Effects of methylphenidate and morphine on delay-discount functions obtained within sessions. J Exp Anal Behav 83:297–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Potter AS, Newhouse PA (2004) Effects of acute nicotine administration on behavioral inhibition in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychopharmacol 176:182–194Google Scholar
  186. Poulos CX, Le AD, Parker JL (1995) Impulsivity predicts individual susceptibility to high levels of alcohol self-administration. Behav Pharmacol 6:810–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Poulos CX, Parker JL, Le DA (1998) Increased impulsivity after injected alcohol predicts later alcohol consumption in rats: evidence for “loss-of-control drinking” and marked individual differences. Behav Neurosci 112:1247–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Quednow BB, Kuhn KU, Hoppe C, Westheide J, Maier W, Daum I, Wagner M (2006) Elevated impulsivity and impaired decision-making cognition in heavy users of MDMA (“Ecstasy”). Psychopharmacol 189(4):517–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Ramaekers JG, Kuypers KP (2006) Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavioral measures of impulsivity: alone and in combination with alcohol. Neuropsychopharmacol 31:1048–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reynolds B, Schiffbauer R (2004) Measuring state changes in human delay discounting: an experiential discounting task. Behav Processes 67:343–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Reynolds B, Karraker K, Horn K, Richards JB (2003) Delay and probability discounting as related to different stages of adolescent smoking and non-smoking. Behav Processes 64:333–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Reynolds B, Richards JB, Dassinger M, de Wit H (2004a) Therapeutic doses of diazepam do not alter impulsive behavior in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Reynolds B, Richards JB, Horn K, Karraker K (2004b) Delay discounting and probability discounting as related to cigarette smoking status in adults. Behav Processes 65:35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Reynolds B, Ortengren A, Richards JB, de Wit H (2006a) Dimensions of impulsive behavior: personality and behavioral measures. Pers Individ Diff 40:305–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Reynolds B, Richards JB, de Wit H (2006b) Acute-alcohol effects on the Experiential Discounting Task (EDT) and a question-based measure of delay discounting. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 83:194–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Reynolds B, Patak M, Shroff P, Penfold RB, Melanko S, Duhig AM (2007) Laboratory and self-report assessments of impulsive behavior in adolescent daily smokers and nonsmokers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:264–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Richards JB, Mitchell SH, de Wit H, Seiden LS (1997) Determination of discount functions in rats with an adjusting-amount procedure. J Exp Anal Behav 67:353–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Richards JB, Sabol KE, de Wit H (1999a) Effects of methamphetamine on the adjusting amount procedure, a model of impulsive behavior in rats. Psychopharmacol 146:432–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Richards JB, Zhang L, Mitchell SH, de Wit H (1999b) Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol. J Exp Anal Behav 71:121–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Robbins TW (1978) The acquisition of responding with conditioned reinforcement: effects of pipradrol, methylphenidate, d-amphetamine and nomifensine. Psychopharmacol 58:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Robbins TW (2002) The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioral pharmacology and functional neurochemistry. Psychopharmacol 163:362–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (1979) “Paradoxical” effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs from the standpoint of behavioural pharmacology. Neuropharmacol 18:931–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Robbins TW, Watson BA, Gaskin M, Ennis C (1983) Contrasting interactions of pipradrol, d-amphetamine, cocaine, cocaine analogs, apomorphine and other drugs with conditioned reinforcement. Psychopharmacol 80:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Robinson ES, Eagle DM, Mar AC, Bari A, Banerjee G, Jiang X, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2007) Similar effects of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine on three distinct forms of impulsivity in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacol 33(5):1028–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Roth ME, Carroll ME (2004) Sex differences in the escalation of intravenous cocaine intake following long- or short-access to cocaine self-administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 78:199–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Roth ME, Casimir AG, Carroll ME (2002) Influence of estrogen in the acquisition of intravenously self-administered heroin in female rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72:313–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Roth ME, Cosgrove KP, Carroll ME (2004) Sex differences in the vulnerability to drug abuse: a review of preclinical studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28:533–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Sahakian BJ, Owen AM, Morant NJ, Eagger SA, Boddington S, Crayton L, Crockford HA, Crooks M, Hill K, Levy R (1993) Further analysis of the cognitive effects of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in Alzheimer’s disease: assessment of attentional and mnemonic function using CANTAB. Psychopharmacol 110:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Shaffer HJ, Eber GB (2002) Temporal progression of cocaine dependence symptoms in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Addiction 97:543–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Shaham Y, Miczek KA (2003) Reinstatement: toward a model of relapse. Psychopharmacol 168:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Shaham Y, Shalev U, Lu L, de Wit H, Stewart J (2003) The reinstatement model of drug relapse: history, methodology and major findings. Psychopharmacol 168:3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Shalev U, Grimm JW, Shaham Y (2002) Neurobioloby of relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking: a review. Pharmacol Rev 54:1–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Shoaib M, Bizarro L (2005) Deficits in a sustained attention task following nicotine withdrawal in rats. Psychopharmacol 178:211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Simon NW, Mendez IA, Setlow B (2007) Cocaine exposure causes long-term increases in impulsive choice. Behav Neurosci 121:543–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Skinner MD, Aubin HJ, Berlin I (2004) Impulsivity in smoking, nonsmoking, and ex-smoking alcoholics. Addict Behav 29:973–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Sofuoglu M, Gonzalez G, Poling J, Kosten TR (2003) Prediction of treatment outcome by baseline urine cocaine results and self-reported cocaine use for cocaine and opioid dependence. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 29:713–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Solanto MV, Abikoff H, Sonuga-Barke E, Schachar R, Logan GD, Wigal T, Hechtman L, Hinshaw S, Turkel E (2001) The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: a supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 29:215–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Sonuga-Barke EJ (2003) The dual pathway model of AD/HD: an elaboration of neuro-developmental characteristics. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:593–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sonuga-Barke EJ, Dalen L, Remington B (2003) Do executive deficits and delay aversion make independent contributions to preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych 42:1335–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Spear NE, Molina JC (2005) Fetal or infantile exposure to ethanol promotes ethanol ingestion in adolescence and adulthood: a theoretical review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:909–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Specio SE, Wee S, O’Dell LE, Boutrel B, Zorrila EP, Koob GF (2008) CRF(1) receptor antagonists attenuate escalated cocaine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacol 196:473–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Spinella M (2002) Correlations between orbitofrontal dysfunction and tobacco smoking. Addict Biol 7:381–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Steele CM, Josephs RA (1990) Alcohol myopia. Its prized and dangerous effects. Am Psychol 45:921–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Stitzer ML, Peirce J, Petry NM, Kirby K, Roll J, Krasnansky J, Cohen A, Blaine J, Vandrey R, Kolodner K, Li R (2007a) Abstinence-based incentives in methadone maintenance: interaction with intake stimulant test results. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:344–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Stitzer ML, Petry N, Peirce J, Kirby K, Killeen T, Roll J, Hamilton J, Stabile PQ, Sterling R, Brown C, Kolodner K, Li R (2007b) Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results. J Consult Clin Psychol 75:805–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Stolerman IP, Mirza NR, Hahn B, Shoaib M (2000) Nicotine in an animal model of attention. Eur J Pharmacol 393:147–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Substance Abuse and Health Services Administration (2006) Results from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-30, DHHS Publication No. SMA 06-4194, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  228. Svensson AI, Soderpalm B, Engel JA (2000) Gonadectomy enhances shock-induced behavioral inhibition in adult male rats: implications for impulsive behavior. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 65:731–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Swann AC, Bjork JM, Moeller FG, Dougherty DM (2002) Two models of impulsivity: relationship to personality traits and psychopathology. Biol Psychiatry 51:988–994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Takahashi T, Sakaguchi K, Oki M, Homma S, Hasegawa T (2006) Testosterone levels and discounting delayed monetary gains and losses in male humans. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 27:439–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Tannock R, Schachar RJ, Carr RP, Chajczyk D, Logan GD (1989) Effects of methylphenidate on inhibitory control in hyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 17:473–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Tannock R, Schachar R, Logan G (1995) Methylphenidate and cognitive flexibility: dissociated dose effects in hyperactive children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 23:235–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Tidey JW, Miczek KA (1997) Acquisition of cocaine self-administration after social stress: role of accumbens dopamine. Psychopharmacol 130:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Uhl G (2007) Premature poking: impulsivity, cocaine and dopamine. Nat Med 13:413–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Vaidya JG, Grippo AJ, Johnson AK, Watson D (2004) A comparative developmental study of impulsivity in rats and humans: the role of reward sensitivity. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:395–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Van den Bergh F, Spronk M, Ferreira L, Bloemarts E, Groenink L, Olivier B, Oosting R (2006) Relationship of delay aversion and response inhibition to extinction learning, aggression, and sexual behaviour. Behav Brain Res 175:75–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. van Gaalen MM, Brueggeman RJ, Bronius PFC, Schoffelmeer ANM, Vanderschuren LJMJ (2006a) Behavioral disinhibition requires dopamine receptor activation. Psychopharmacol 187:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. van Gaalen MM, van Koten R, Schoffelmeer A, Vanderschuren L (2006b) Critical involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in impulsive decision making. Biol Psychiatry 60:66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Van Haaren F, Van Hest A, Van De Poll NE (1988) Self-control in male and female rats. J Exp Anal Behav 49:201–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Verdejo-Garcia AJ, Perales JC, Perez-Garcia M (2007) Cognitive impulsivity in cocaine and heroin polysubstance abusers. Addict Behav 32:950–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Vuchinich RE, Simpson CA (1998) Hyperbolic temporal discounting in social drinkers and problem drinkers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6:292–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wade TR, de Wit H, Richards JB (2000) Effects of dopaminergic drugs on delayed reward as a measure of impulsive behavior in rats. Psychopharmacol 150:90–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Waldeck TL, Miller LS (1997) Gender and impulsivity differences in licit substance use. J Subst Abuse 9:269–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wallace CJ (1979) The effects of delayed rewards, social pressure, and frustration on the responses of opiate addicts. NIDA Res Monogr 25:6–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Wee S, Wang Z, Woolverton WL, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF (2007) Effect of aripiprazole, a partial dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, on increased rate of methamphetamine self-administration in rats with prolonged session duration. Neuropsychopharmacol 32:2238–2247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Wills TA, Vaccaro D, Benson G (1995) Coping and competence in adolescent alcohol and drug use. In: Wallander JL, Lawrence J (eds) Adolescent health problems: behavioral perspectives. Advances in pediatric psychology. Guilford, New York, pp 160–178Google Scholar
  247. Winstanley CA, Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Robbins TW (2003) Global 5-HT depletion attenuates the ability of amphetamine to decrease impulsive choice on a delay-discounting task in rats. Psychopharmacol 170:320–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Woolverton WL, Myerson J, Green L (2007) Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wulfert E, Block JA, Santa Ana E, Rodriguez ML, Colsman M (2002) Delay of gratification: impulsive choices and problem behaviors in early and late adolescence. J Pers 70:533–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Yoon JH, Higgins ST, Heil SH, Sugarbaker RJ, Thomas CS, Badger GJ (2007) Delay discounting predicts postpartum relapse to cigarette smoking among pregnant women. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15:176–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Minneapolis Medical Research FoundationMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Minnesota Medical SchoolMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations