Advertisement

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 196, Issue 3, pp 461–471 | Cite as

Nicotine effects on affective response in depression-prone smokers

  • Bonnie Spring
  • Jessica Werth Cook
  • Bradley Appelhans
  • Anne Maloney
  • Malia Richmond
  • Jocelyn Vaughn
  • Joseph Vanderveen
  • Donald Hedeker
Original Investigation

Abstract

Rationale

Comorbidity between cigarette smoking and depression is thought to arise because depression-prone smokers self-administer nicotine to improve mood. Yet little evidence supports this view, and nicotine’s effect on positive affect deficiency in depression remains largely unstudied.

Objectives

We hypothesized that (1) nicotine would dispel negative affect and enhance positive affect and (2) effects would be stronger for smokers vulnerable to depression, particularly during a depressed state.

Materials and methods

Regular smokers (N = 165) were recruited from the community: 63 with no history of major depressive disorder (MDD), 61 with recurrent past but no current MDD, and 41 with both current and past MDD. During four sessions, participants smoked either a nicotinized (NIC+) or denicotinized (NIC−) cigarette double blind after experiencing a negative mood induction or while undergoing a positive mood induction. Positive and negative affects were measured at baseline and at two time points after smoking.

Results

Previously depressed smokers showed a heightened positive mood response to positive mood induction when smoking a nicotinized cigarette. Nicotine also increased the degree to which positive mood induction dispelled negative mood in depression-vulnerable smokers. Finally, nicotine worsened the negative affect response to negative mood induction for all groups.

Conclusion

Self-administering nicotine appears to improve depression-prone smokers’ emotional response to a pleasant stimulus.

Keywords

Nicotine Depression Tobacco smoking Affect Tobacco use 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Supported by a VA Medical Research Merit Review grant to Dr. Spring and by NIH grants P30 CA060553 and R25 CA100600. Portions of this paper were presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Research in Nicotine and Tobacco, Austin, Texas, February, 2007. We express appreciation to Dennis McChargue and Neal Doran for discussions during the conduct of the research and an anonymous reviewer for noting the relevance of attentional allocation models to our findings.

References

  1. al’ Absi M, Hatsukami D, Davis GL, Wittmers LE (2004) Prospective examination of effects of smoking abstinence on cortisol and withdrawal symptoms as predictors of early smoking relapse. Drug Alcohol Depend 73:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balfour DJ, Ridley DL (2000) The effects of nicotine on neural pathways implicated in depression: a factor in nicotine addiction? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 66:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bech P, Gram L, Dein F, Jacobsen O, Vitger J, Bolwig T (1975) Quantitative rating of depressive states. Acta Psychiatr Scand 51:161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breslau N, Kilbey MM, Andreski P (1993) Nicotine dependence and major depression: new evidence from a prospective investigation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Breslau N, Novak SP, Kessler RC (2004) Daily smoking and the subsequent onset of psychiatric disorders. Psychol Med 34:323–333Google Scholar
  6. Chaudhri N, Caggiula AR, Donny EC, Palmatier MI, Liu X, Sved A (2006) Complex interactions between nicotine and nonpharmacological stimuli reveal multiple roles for nicotine in reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 184:353–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark DM, Teasdale JD (1982) Diurnal variation in clinical depression and accessibility of memories of positive and negative experiences. J Abnorm Psychol 91:87–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark LA, Watson D (1988) Mood and the mundane: relations between daily life events and self-reported mood. J Pers Soc Psychol 54:296–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark LA, Watson D (1991) Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. J Abnorm Psychol 100:316–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark LA, Vittengl J, Kraft D, Jarrett RB (2003) Separate personality traits from states to predict depression. J Pers Disord 17:152–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen J (1992) A power primer. Psychol Bull 112:155–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Conklin CA, Perkins KA (2005) Subjective and reinforcing effects of smoking during negative mood induction. J Abnorm Psychol 114:153–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coyne JC, Fechner-Bates S, Schwenk TL (1994) Prevalence, nature, and comorbidity of depressive disorders in primary care. Gen Hosp Psych 16:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cutler GH, Barrios FX (1988) Effects of deprivation on smokers’ mood during the operation of a complex computer simulation. Addict Behav 13:379–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duncan B, Rees DI (2005) Effect of smoking on depressive symptomatology: a reexamination of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Am J Epidemiol 162:461–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Epping-Jordan MP, Watkins SS, Koob GF, Markou A (1988) Dramatic decreases in brain reward function during nicotine withdrawal. Nature 393:76–79Google Scholar
  17. Fawcett J, Clark DC, Scheftner WA, Gibbons RD (1983) Assessing anhedonia in psychiatric patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:79–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gentry MV, Hammersley JJ, Hale CR, Nuwer PK, Meliska CJ (2000) Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task. Addict Behav 25:549–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerrards-Hesse A, Spies K, Hesse FW (1994) Experimental inductions of emotional states and their effectiveness: a review. Br J Psychol 85:55–78Google Scholar
  20. Gilbert DG (1995) Smoking: individual differences, psychopathology, and emotion. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilbert DG, Robinson JH, Chamberlin CL, Spielberger CD (1989) Effects of smoking/nicotine on anxiety, heart rate, and lateralization of EEG during a stressful movie. Psychophysiology 26:311–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glantz MD, Pickens RW (Eds) (1992) Vulnerability to drug abuse. American Psychological Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  23. Glassman AH, Helzer JE, Covey LS, Cottler LB, Stetner F, Tipp JE, Johnson JE (1990) Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression. J Am Med Assoc 264:1546–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grant BF, Hasin DS, Chou SP, Stinson FS, Dawson DA (2004) Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:1107–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hall SM, Muñoz RF, Reus VI, Sees K, Duncan C, Humfleet GL, Hartz DT (1996) Mood management and nicotine gum in smoking treatment: a therapeutic contact and placebo-controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol 64:1003–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamilton M (1960) A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamilton M (1967) Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. Br J Soc Clin Psychol 6:278–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hankin BL, Abela JRZ (Eds) (2005) Development of psychopathology: a vulnerability-stress perspective. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  29. Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Freckler RC, Fagerstrom K (1991) The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Addiction 86:1119–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Herbert M, Foulds J, Fife-Schaw C (2001) No effect of cigarette smoking on attention or mood in non-deprived smokers. Addiction 96:1349–1356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hernandez S, Vander Wal JS, Spring B (2003) A negative mood induction procedure with efficacy across repeated administrations in women. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 25:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hitsman B, Borrelli B, McChargue DE, Spring B, Niaura R (2003) History of depression and smoking cessation outcome: a meta-analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 71:657–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huston-Lyons D, Kornetsky C (1992) Effects of nicotine on the threshold for rewarding brain stimulation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 41: 755–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hutchison KE, Niaura R, Swift R (2000) The effects of smoking high nicotine cigarettes on prepulse inhibition, startle latency, and subjective responses. Psychopharmacology 150:244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. John U, Meyer C, Rumpf HJ, Hapke U (2004) Smoking, nicotine dependence and psychiatric comorbidity: a population-based study including smoking cessation after three years. Drug Alcohol Depend 76:287–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kassel JD, Unrod M (2000) Smoking, anxiety, and attention: Support for the role of nicotine in attentionally mediated anxiolysis. J Abnorm Psychol 109:161–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keedwell PA, Andrew C, Williams SCR, Brammer MJ, Phillips ML (2005) The neural correlates of anhedonia in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 58:843–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kendler KS, Neale MC, MacLean CJ, Heath AC, Eaves LJ, Kessler LC (1993) Smoking and major depression: a causal analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:36–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Khantzian EJ (1997) The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: a reconsideration and recent applications. Harv Rev Psychiatry 4:231–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kornetsky C, Bain G (1990) Brain-stimulation reward: a model for drug induced euphoria. In: Adler M W, Cowan, A (eds) Modern methods in pharmacology testing and evaluation of drugs of abuse. Wiley-Liss, New York, p 211–231Google Scholar
  41. Lane J, Rose J, Lefebre J, Keefe F (1995) Effects of cigarette smoking on perception of thermal pain. J Exp Clin Psychopharm 3:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lerman C, Jepson C, Wileyto EP, Epstein LH, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, Kaufmann V, Restine S, Hawk L, Niaura R, Berrettini W (2006) Role of functional genetic variation in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) in response to bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco dependence: results of two randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:231–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Leventhal AM, Chasson GS, Tapia E, Miller EK, Pettit JW (2006) Measuring hedonic capacity in depression: a psychometric analysis of three anhedonia scales. J Clin Psychol 62:1545–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Levin ED, Rose JE, Behm F, Caskey NH (1991) The effects of smoking-related sensory cues on psychological stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 39:265–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loas G (1996) Vulnerability to depression: a model centered on anhedonia. J Affect Disord 41:39–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Malpass D, Higgs S (2007) Acute psychomotor, subjective and physiological responses to smoking in depressed outpatient smokers and matched controls. Psychopharmacology 190:363–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martin M (1990) On the induction of mood. Clin Psychol Rev 10:669–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Masson CL, Gilbert DG (1999) Cardiovascular and mood responses to quantified doses of cigarette smoke in oral contraceptive users and nonusers. J Behav Med 22:589–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McCabe SB, Gotlib IH, Martin RA (2000) Cognitive vulnerability for depression: deployment of attention as a function of history of depression and current mood state. Cogn Ther Res 24:427–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) EITS manual for the profile of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  51. Meehl PE (1987) Hedonic capacity ten years later: some clarifications. In: Clark CC, Fawcett J (eds) Anhedonia and affect deficit states. PMA Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Murphy JM, Horton NJ, Monson BR, Laird NM, Sobol AM, Leighton AH (2003) Cigarette smoking in relation to depression: historical trends from the Stirling County Study. Am J Psychiatry 160:1663–1669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parrott AC, Garnham NJ (1998) Comparative mood states and cognitive skills of cigarette smokers, deprived smokers and nonsmokers. Human Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 13:367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Perkins KA (1995) Individual variability in responses to nicotine. Behav Genet 25:119–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Perkins KA, Grobe JE, Fonte C, Breus M (1992) “Paradoxical” effects of smoking on subjective stress versus cardiovascular arousal in males and females. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 42:301–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Perkins KA, Doyle T, Ciccocioppo M, Conklin C, Sayette M (2006) Sex differences in the influence of nicotine dose instructions on the reinforcing and self-reported rewarding effects of smoking. Psychopharmacology 184:600–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pickworth WB, Fant RV, Nelson RA, Rohrer MS, Henningfield JE (1999) Pharmacodynamic effects of new de-nicotinized cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res 1:357–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pizzagalli DA, Jahn AL, O’Shea JP (2005) Toward an objective characterization of an anhedonic phenotype: a signal-detection approach. Biol Psychiatry 57:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pomerleau CS, Pomerleau OF (1992) Euphoriant effects of nicotine in smokers. Psychopharmacology 108:460–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pomerleau CS, Carton SM, Lutzke ML, Flessland KA, Pomerleau OF (1994) Reliability of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Addict Behav 19:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Quattrocki E, Baird A, Yurgelun-Todd D (2000) Biological aspects of the link between smoking and depression. Harv Rev Psychiatry 8:99–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Richmond M, Spring B, Sommerfeld BK, McChargue D (2001) Rumination and cigarette smoking: a bad combination for depressive outcomes? J Consult Clin Psychol 69:836–840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roisman GI, Fortuna K, Holland A (2006) An experimental manipulation of retrospectively defined earned and continuous attachment security. Child Dev 77:59–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rosenthal R, Rosnow RL, Rubin DB (2000) Contrasts and effect sizes in behavioral research: a correlational approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  65. Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Gibbon M, First MB (1992) The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). History, rationale, and description. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:624–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Spring B, Zubin J (1978) Attention and information processing as indicators of vulnerability to schizophrenic episodes. J Psychiatr Res 14:289–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Spring B, Pingitore R, McChargue DE (2003) Reward value of cigarette smoking for comparably heavy smoking schizophrenic, depressed, and nonpatient smokers. Am J Psychiatry 160:316–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Spring B, Doran N, Pagoto S, McChargue D, Werth Cook J, Bailey K, Crayton J, Hedeker D (2007a) Fluoxetine, smoking, and history of major depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 75:85–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Spring B, Hitsman B, Pingitore R, McChargue DE, Gunnarsdottir D, Corsica J, Pergadia J, Doran N, Crayton JW, Baruah S, Hedeker D (2007b) Effect of tryptophan depletion on smokers and non-smokers with and without a history of major depression. Biol Psychiatry 61:70–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tremblay LK, Naranjo CA, Cardenas L, Hermann N, Busto UE (2002) Probing the brain reward system in major depressive disorder: altered response to dextroamphetamine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:409–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tremblay LK, Naranjo CA, Graham SJ, Herrmann N, Mayberg HS, Hevenor S, Busto US (2005) Functional neuroanatomical substrates of altered reward processing in major depressive disorder revealed by a dopaminergic probe. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:1228–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Warburton DM, Mancuso G (1998) Evaluation of the information processing and mood effects of a transdermal nicotine patch. Psychopharmacology 135:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A (1988) Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 54:1063–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Werth Cook J, Spring B, McChargue DE, Hedeker D (2004a) Hedonic capacity, cigarette craving and diminished positive mood. Nicotine Tob Res 6:37–45Google Scholar
  75. Werth Cook J, Spring B, McChargue DE, Borrelli B, Hitsman B, Niaura R, Keuthen NJ, Kristeller J (2004b) Influence of fluoxetine on positive and negative affect in a clinic-based smoking cessation trial. Psychopharmacology 173:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Williams JBW, Gibbon M, First MB, Spitzer RL, Davies M, Borus J, Howes MJ, Kane J, Pope HG, Rounsaville B, Wittchen HU (1992) The structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). Multisite test–retest reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:630–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Wu LT, Anthony JC (1999) Tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence. Am J Public Health 89:1837–1840PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zubin J, Spring B (1977) Vulnerability: a new view of schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 86:103–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bonnie Spring
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jessica Werth Cook
    • 3
  • Bradley Appelhans
    • 2
  • Anne Maloney
    • 2
    • 3
  • Malia Richmond
    • 3
  • Jocelyn Vaughn
    • 2
  • Joseph Vanderveen
    • 3
  • Donald Hedeker
    • 3
  1. 1.Hines Hospital, VA Medical CenterHinesUSA
  2. 2.Northwestern UniversityChicagoUSA
  3. 3.University of IllinoisChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations