Advertisement

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 188, Issue 4, pp 408–424 | Cite as

Acute and chronic effects of ketamine upon human memory: a review

  • Celia J. A. MorganEmail author
  • H. Valerie Curran
Review

Abstract

Introduction

Ketamine is attracting increasing research interest not only because of its powerful amnestic effects but also as a putative model of schizophrenia and as a substance with an expanding following of recreational users.

Objective

This article reviews the existing literature on the effects of acute ketamine on the memory of healthy volunteers and of repeated doses of ketamine in recreational users.

Current trends

Although there have been relatively few, often methodologically diverse, studies to date of the mnemonic effects of ketamine, there is an emerging consensus that an acute dose of the drug impairs the manipulation of information in working memory and produces decrements in the encoding of information into episodic memory. Preliminary evidence suggests that ketamine may differ from other classic amnestic drugs in impairing aspects of semantic memory. Acute-on-chronic effects in ketamine users generally mimic the pattern seen in controlled studies with healthy volunteers. However, chronic ketamine use may be associated with a more specific pattern of memory decrements and with episodic memory impairment, which might not abate following cessation of use.

Future trends

An important aim of future research should be to detail the specificity of ketamine’s amnestic effects on both a neuropharmacological and a cognitive level.

Keywords

Ketamine NMDA Working memory Episodic memory Semantic memory Drug abuse Glutamate 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by a Medical Research Council to HVC (UK) Studentship to C.J.A. Morgan and by an Economic and Social Research Council.

References

  1. Abel KM, Allin MPG, Hemsley DR, Geyer MA (2003) Low dose ketamine increases pre-pulse inhibition in healthy men. Neuropharmacology 44:729–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams B, Moghaddam B (1998) Corticolimbic dopamine neurotransmission is temporally dissociated from the cognitive and locomotor effects of phencyclidine. J Neurosci 18:5545–5554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler CM, Goldberg TE, Malhotra AK, Breier A (1998) Effects of ketamine on thought disorder, working memory and semantic memory in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 43:811–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen HA, Liddle PF, Frith CD (1993) Negative features, retrieval processes and verbal fluency in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 163:769–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anand A, Charney DS, Oren DA, Berman RM, Hu XS, Cappiello A, Krystal JH (2000) Attenuation of the neuropsychiatric effects of ketamine with lamotrigine—support for hyperglutamatergic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:270–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arvanov VL, Wang RY (1998) Clozapine, but not haloperidol or raclopride, prevents functional hyperactivity of NMDA receptors in rat cortical neurons induced by subchronic administration of phencyclidine. Soc Neurosci Abstr 24:1827Google Scholar
  7. Baddeley A (1998) Recent developments in working memory. Current opinion in neurobiology 8:234–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baddeley A (2000) The episdoic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernstein HG, Becker A, Keilhoff G, Spilker C, Gorczyca WA, Braunewell KH, Grecksch G (2003) Brain region-specific changes in the expression of calcium sensor proteins after repeated applications of ketamine to rats. Neurosci Lett 339:95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cabeza R, Nyberg L (2000) Neural bases of learning and memory: functional neuroimaging evidence. Curr Opin Neurol 13:415–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlin AS, Grant I, Adams KM, Reed R (1979) Is phencyclidine (PCP) abuse associated with organic brain impairment? Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 6:273–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlsson A, Waters N, Carlsson ML (1999) Neurotransmitter interactions in schizophrenia—therapeutic implications. Biol Psychiatry 46:1388–1395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers RA, Krystal JH, Self DW (2001) A neurobiological basis for substance abuse comorbidity in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 50:71–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen BD, Rosenbaum G, Luby ED, Gottlieb JS (1962) Comparison of phencyclidine hydrocholoride (sernyl) with other drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 6:395–401Google Scholar
  15. Cosgrove J, Newell TG (1991) Recovery of neuropsychological functions during reduction in use of phencyclidine. J Clin Psychol 47:159–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Craik FIM, Lockhart RS (1972) Levels of processing: a framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11:671–684Google Scholar
  17. Curran HV (2000) Is MDMA (‘Ecstasy’) neurotoxic in humans? An overview of evidence and of methodological problems in research. Neuropsychobiology 42:34–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Curran HV, Monaghan L (2001) In and out of the K-hole: a comparison of the acute and residual effects of ketamine in frequent and infrequent ketamine users. Addiction 96:749–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Curran HV, Morgan CJA (2000) Cognitive, dissociative and psychotogenic effects of ketamine on recreational users on the night of drug use and 3 days later. Addiction 95:575–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Danion JM, Rizzo L, Bruant A (1999) Functional mechanisms underlying impaired recognition memory and conscious awareness in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:639–644Google Scholar
  21. Deakin JF, Simpson MD (1997) A two-process theory of schizophrenia: evidence from studies in post-mortem brain. J Psychiatr Res 31:277–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Drejer J, Honore T (1987) Phencyclidine analogues inhibit NMDA-stimulated [3H]GABA release from cultured cortex neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 143:287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. DrugScope (2005) UK drug situation 2005. http://www.drugscope.org.uk/news_item.asp?intID=1241
  24. D’Souza DC, Perry E, MacDougall L, Ammerman Y, Cooper T, Wu YT, Braley G, Gueorguieva R, Krystal JH (2004) The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: implications for psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1558–1572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. D’Souza DC, Abi-Saab WM, Madonick S, Forselius-Bielen K, Doersch A, Braley G, Gueorguieva R, Cooper TB, Krystal JH (2005) Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction. Biol Psychiatry 57:594–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duncan GE, Miyamoto S, Lieberman JA (2003) Chronic administration of haloperidol and olanzapine attenuates ketamine-induced brain metabolic activation. J Clin Exp Ther 305:999–1005Google Scholar
  27. Dundee JW, Lilburn JK (1978) Ketamine–lorazepam: attenuation of psychic sequelae of ketamine by lorazepam. Anaesthesia 33:312–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fauman MA, Fauman BJ (1978) The psychiatric aspects of chronic phencyclidine use: a study of chronic PCP users. In: Stillman RC, Stillman RC (eds) Phencyclidine (PCP) abuse: an appraisal. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD, pp 66–118Google Scholar
  29. Feldman RS, Meyer JS, Quenzer LF (1997) Principles of neuropsychopharmacology. Sinauer, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  30. Fletcher PC, Frith CD, Rugg MD (1997) The functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory. Trends in Neurosciences 20:213–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fletcher PC, Honey GD (2006) Schizophrenia, ketamine and cannabis: evidence of overlapping memory deficits. Trends Cogn Sci 10:167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freuchen I, Ostergaard J, Kuhl JB, Mikkelsen BO (1976) Reduction of psychotomimetic side effects of Ketalar (ketamine) by Rohypnol (flunitrazepam). A randomized double-blind trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 20:97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ghoneim M, Hinrichs JV, Mewaldt SP, Peterson RC (1985) Ketamine: behavioural effects at subanesthetic doses. J Clin Psychopharmacol 5:70–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND (2002) Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry 159:1642–1652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Grossberg S (1984) Some normal and abnormal behavioral syndromes due to transmitter gating of opponent processes. Biol Psychiatry 19:1075–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Harborne GC, Watson FL, Healy DT, Groves L (1996) The effects of sub-anaesthetic doses of ketamine on memory, cognitive performance and subjective experience in healthy volunteers. J Psychopharmacol 10:134–140Google Scholar
  37. Harris JA, Biersner RJ, Edwards D, Bailey LW (1975) Attention, Learning and Personality During Ketamine Emergence: A Pilot Study. Anesthesia and Analgesia 54:169–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Harvey PD, Green MF, McGurk SR, Meltzer HY (2003) Changes in cognitive functioning with risperidone and olanzapine treatment: a large-scale, double-blind, randomized study. Psychopharmacology 169:404–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hazeltine E, Ivry RB (2003) Neural structures that support implicit sequence learning. In: Jiminez L (ed) John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 109–141Google Scholar
  40. Heckers S, Rauch SL, Goff D, Savage CR, Schacter DL, Fischman AJ, Alpert NM (1998) Impaired recruitment of the hippocampus during conscious recollection in schizophrenia. Nat Neurosci 1:318–323Google Scholar
  41. Hetem LAB, Danion JM, Diemunsch P, Brandt C (2000) Effect of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine on memory and conscious awareness in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology 152:283–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Honey RAE, Turner D, Honey GD, Sharar SR, Kumaran D, Pomarol-Clotet E, McKenna PJ, Sahakian B, Robbins TW, Fletcher PC (2003) Low dose ketamine produces a deficit in manipulation but not maintenance of the contents of working memory. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:2037–2044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Honey RA, Honey GD, O’loughlin C, Sharar SR, Kumaran D, Bullmore ET, Menon DK, Donovan T, Lupson VC, Bisbrown-Chippendale R, Fletcher PC (2004) Acute ketamine administration alters the brain responses to executive demands in a verbal working memory task: an FMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1203–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Honey GD, Honey RA, O’loughlin C, Sharar SR, Kumaran D, Suckling J, Menon DK, Sleator C, Bullmore ET (2005a) Ketamine disrupts frontal and hippocampal contribution to encoding and retrieval of episodic memory: an FMRI study. Cereb Cortex 15:749–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Honey G, Honey R, Sharar S, Turner D, Pomarol-Clotet E, Kumaran D, Simons J, Hu X, Rugg M, Bullmore E, Fletcher P (2005b) Impairment of specific episodic memory processes by sub-psychotic doses of ketamine: the effects of levels of processing at encoding and of the subsequent retrieval task. Psychopharmacology 181:445–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Honey GD, O’loughlin C, Turner DC, Pomarol-Clotet E, Corlett PR, Fletcher PC (2006) The effects of a subpsychotic dose of ketamine on recognition and source memory for agency: implications for pharmacological modelling of core symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:413–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hurt PH, Ritchie EC (1994) A case of ketamine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry 151:779Google Scholar
  48. Jansen KLR (1990) Ketamine: can chronic use impair memory? Int J Addict 25:133–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jentsch JD, Tran A, Le D, Youngren KD, Roth RH (1997) Subchronic phencyclidine administration reduces mesoprefrontal dopamine utilization and impairs prefrontal cortical-dependent cognition in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 17:99Google Scholar
  50. Jentsch JD, Roth RH (1999) The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:201–225Google Scholar
  51. Jenstch JD, Roth RH, Taylor JR (2000) Object retrieval/detour deficits in monkeys produced by prior subchronic phencyclidine administration: evidence for cognitive impulsivity. Biol Psychiatry 48:415–424Google Scholar
  52. Kegeles LS, Martinez D, Kochan LD, Hwang DR, Huang Y, Mawlawi O, Suckow RF, Van-Heertum RL, Laurelle M (2002) NMDA antagonist effects on striatal dopamine release: positron emission tomography studies in humans. Synapse 43:19–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Keilhoff G, Bernstein HG, Becker A, Grecksch G, Wolf G (2004) Increased neurogenesis in a rat ketamine model of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 56:317–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kothary SP, Zsigmond EK (1977) A double-blind study of the effective antihallucinatory doses of diazepam prior to ketamine anesthesia. Clin Pharmacol Ther 21:108–109Google Scholar
  55. Krystal JH, Karper LP, Seibyl JP, Freeman GK, Delaney R, Bremner JD, Heninger GR, Bowers MB, Charney DS (1994) Subanesthetic effects of the non-competitive NMDA-antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:199–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Krystal JH, Karper LP, Bennett A, D’Souza DC, Abi-Dargham A, Morrisey K, Charney DS (1998) Interactive effects of subanesthetic ketamine and subhypnotic lorazepam in humans. Psychopharmacology 135:213–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Krystal JH, D’Souza DC, Karper LP, Bennett A, Abi-Dargham A, Abi-Saab D, Cassello K, Bowers MB, Vegso S, Heninger GR, Charney DS (1999) Interactive effects of subanesthetic ketamine and haloperidol in healthy humans. Psychopharmacology 145:193–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Krystal JH, Bennett A, Abi-Saab D, Belger A, Karper LP, D’Souza DC, Lipschitz D, Abi-Dargham A, Charney DS (2000) Dissociation of ketamine effects on rule acquisition and rule implementation: possible relevance to NMDA receptor contributions to executive cognitive functions. Biol Psychiatry 47:137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Krystal JH, Abi-Saab W, Perry E, D’Souza C, Liu N, Gueorguieva R, McDougall L, Hunsberger T, Belger A, Levine L, Breier (2005a) Preliminary evidence of attenuation of the disruptive effects of the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, ketamine, on working memory by pretreatment with the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY354740, in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology 179:303–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Krystal JH, Perry EB Jr, Gueorguieva R, Belger A, Madonick SH, Abi-Dargham A, Cooper TB, MacDougall L, Abi-Saab W, D’Souza DC (2005b) Comparative and interactive human psychopharmacologic effects of ketamine and amphetamine: implications for glutamatergic and dopaminergic model psychoses and cognitive function. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:985–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lindefors N, Barati S, O’Connor WT (1997) Differential effects of single and repeated ketamine administration on dopamine, serotonin and GABA transmission in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Brain Research 759:205–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lisman JE, Fellous J, Wang X (1998) A role for NMDA-receptor channels in working memory. Nat Neurosci 1:273–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lodge D, Johnston GA (1985) Effect of ketamine on amino acid-evoked release of acetylcholine from rat cerebral cortex in vitro. Neurosci Lett 56:371–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Luby ED, Cohen BD, Rosenbaum G, Gottlieb JS, Kelley R (1959) Study of a new schizophrenomimetic drug—sernyl. AMA Arch Neurol Psych 81:363–369Google Scholar
  65. Malhotra AK, Pinals DA, Weingartner H, Sirocco K, Missar CD, Pickar D, Breier A (1996) NMDA receptor function and human cognition: the effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 14:301–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Malhotra A, Adler CM, Kennison SD, Elman I, Pickar D, Breier A (1997) Clozapine blunts N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist induced psychosis: a study with ketamine. Biol Psychiatry 42:664–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Malhotra AK, Breier A, Goldman D, Picken L, Pickar D (1998) The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is associated with blunting of ketamine-induced psychosis in schizophrenia. A preliminary report. Neuropsychopharmacology 19:445–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Meador-Woodruff JH, Healy DJ (2000) Glutamate receptor expression in schizophrenic brain. Brain Res Rev 31:288–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mintzer MZ, Griffiths RR (1999) Triazolam and zolpidem: effects on human memory and attentional processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 144:8–19Google Scholar
  70. Moghaddam B, Adams B, Verma A, Daly D (1997) Activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by ketamine: a novel step in the pathway from NMDA receptor blockade to dopaminergic and cognitive disruptions associated with the prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 17:2921–2927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Morgan CJA, Mofeez A, Brandner B, Bromley L, Curran HV (2004a) Acute effects of ketamine on memory systems and psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:208–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Morgan CJA, Mofeez A, Brandner B, Bromley L, Curran HV (2004b) Ketamine impairs response inhibition and is positively reinforcing in healthy volunteers: a dose response study. Psychopharmacology 172:298–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Morgan CJA, Monaghan L, Curran HV (2004c) Beyond the K-hole: a 3-year longitudinal investigation of the cognitive and subjective effects of ketamine in recreational users who have substantially reduced their use of the drug. Addiction 99:1450–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Morgan CJA, Ricelli M, Maitland CH, Curran HV (2004d) Long-term effects of ketamine: evidence for a persisting impairment of source memory in recreational users. Drug Alcohol Depend 75:301–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Morgan CJA, Rossell SL, Pepper F, Smart J, Blackburn J, Brandner B, Curran HV (2006a) Semantic priming after ketamine acutely in healthy volunteers and following chronic self-administration in substance users. Biol Psychiatry 59:265–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Morgan CJA, Perry EB, Cho HS, Krystal JH, D’Souza DC (2006b) Greater vulnerability to the amnestic effects of ketamine in males. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 187:405–414Google Scholar
  77. Narendran R, Frankle WG, Keefe R, Gil R, Martinez D, Slifstein M, Kegeles LS, Talbot PS, Huang Y, Hwang DR, Khenissi L, Cooper TB, Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A (2005) Altered prefrontal dopaminergic function in chronic recreational ketamine users. Am J Psychiatry 162:2352–2359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nelson CL, Burk JA, Bruno JP, Martin S (2002) Effects of acute and repeated systemic administration of ketamine on prefrontal acetylcholine release and sustained attention performance in rats. Psychopharmacology 161:168–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Newcomer JW, Krystal JH (2001) NMDA receptor regulation of memory and behaviour in humans. Hippocampus 11:529–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Newcomer JW, Farber NB, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Selke G, Melson AK, Hershey T, Craft S, Olney JW (1999) Ketamine-Induced NMDA receptor hypofunction as a model of memory impairment and psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:106–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Ohno M, Yamamoto T, Watanabe S (1994) Intrahippocampal administration of a glycine site antagonist impairs working memory performance of rats. Eur J Pharmacol 253:183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Olney J, Labruyere J, Price MT (1989) Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs. Science 244:1360–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Olney J, Labruyere J, Wang G, Wozniak D, Price MT, Sesma M (1991) NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity: mechanism and prevention. Science 254:1515–1518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Oranje B, van Berckel BNM, Kemmer C, van Ree JM, Kahn RS, Verbaten MN (2000) The effects of a sub-anaesthetic dose of ketamine on human selective attention. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:293–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Oye I, Paulsen O, Maurset A (1992) Effects of ketamine on sensory perception: evidence for a role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 260:1209–1213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Parwani A, Weiler MA, Blaxton TA, Warfel D, Hardin M, Frey K, Lahti AC (2005) The effects of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine on verbal memory in normal volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:265–274Google Scholar
  87. Paulus MP, Hozcak NE, Zauscher BE, Frank L, Brown GG, Schuckit MA (2002) Behavioral and functional neuroimaging evidence for prefrontal dysfunction in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 26:53–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Petrides M, Alivisatos B, Evans AC, Meyer E (1993) Dissociation of human mid-dorsolateral from posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex in memory processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:873–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Petrakis I, Limoncelli D, Gueorguieva R, Jaltow P, Boutros NN, Trevisan L, Gelernter J, Krystal JH (2004) Altered NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist response in individuals with a family vulnerability to alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry 1776–1782Google Scholar
  90. Renstall J, Tully AM, Ward PJ, Kidd AG (1988) Total intravenous anesthesia for military surgery. A technique using ketamine, midazolam and vecuronium. Anaesthesia 43:46–49Google Scholar
  91. Rossell SL, David AS (2006) Are semantic processing deficits in schizophrenia an access or a storage problem? Schizophr Res 82:121–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rossell SL, Bullmore ET, Williams SC, David AS (2001) Brain activation during automatic and controlled processing of semantic relations: a priming experiment using lexical-decision. Neuropsychologia 39:1167–1176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rowland LM, Astur RS, Jung RE, Bustillo JR, Lauriello J, Yeo RA (2005) Selective cognitive impairments associated with NMDA receptor blockade in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:633–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rusted JM, Eaton-Williams P, Warburton DM (1991) A comparison of the effects of scopolamine and diazepam on working memory. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 105:442–445Google Scholar
  95. Sams-Dodd F (1995) Automation of the social interaction task by a video-tracking system: behavioral effects of repeated phencyclidine treatment. J Neurosci Methods 59:157–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sams-Dodd F (1996) Phencycldine-induced stereotyped behavior and social isolation in rats. Behav Pharmacol 7:3–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Saykin AJ, Gur RC, Gur RE, Mozeley PD, Mozeley LH, Resnick SM, Kester DB, Stafiniak P (1991) Neuropsychological function in schizophrenia: selective impairment in memory and learning. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:618–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schacter DL (1999) The seven sins of memory. Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Am Psychol 54:182–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Shallice T (1982) Specific impairments of planning. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 298:199–209Google Scholar
  100. Siegel RK (1978) Phencyclidine and ketamine intoxication: a study of recreational users. In: Peterson RC, Stillman R (eds) Phencyclidine abuse: an appraisal, National Institute on Drug Abuse research monograph. NIDA, Rockville, MD, pp 119–140Google Scholar
  101. Slamecka NA, Graf P (1978) The generation effect: delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4:592–604Google Scholar
  102. Smith GS, Schloesser R, Brodie JD, Dewey SL, Logan J, Vitkun SA, Simokowitz P, Hurley A, Cooper T, Volkow ND, Cancro R (1998) Glutamate modulation of dopamine measured in vivo with position emission tomography (PET) and 11C raclopride in normal human subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 18:18–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Steinpreis RE, Sokolowski JD, Papanikolau A, Salamone JD (1994) The effects of haloperidol and clozapine on PCP-and amphetamine-induced suppression of social behaviour in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 47:579–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stone JM, Erlandsson K, Arstad E, Bressan RA, Squassante L, Teneggi V, Ell PJ, Pilowsky LS (2006) Ketamine displaces the novel NMDA receptor SPET probe [(123)I]CNS-1261 in humans in vivo. Nucl Med Biol 33:239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tamlyn D, McKenna PJ, Mortimer AM, Lund CE, Hammond S, Baddeley AD (1992) Memory impairment in schizophrenia: its extent, affiliations and neuropsychological character. Psychol Med 22:101–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tucker MR, Hann JR, Phillips CL (1984) Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, diazepam, and nitrous oxide for adult outpatient sedation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 42:668–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tulving E (1972) Episodic and semantic memory. In: Tulving E, Donaldson W (eds) Organization of memory. Academic Press, New York, pp 381–403Google Scholar
  108. Tulving E (1985) How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist 40:398Google Scholar
  109. Tulving E (1998) Neurocognitive processes of human memory. In: von Euler C, Lundbreg I, Llinas R (eds) Basic mechanisms in cognition and language. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 261–281Google Scholar
  110. Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ (1998) Episodic and declarative memory: role of the hippocampus. Hippocampus 8:198–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Umbricht D, Schmid L, Koller R, Vollenweider FX, Hell D, Javitt DC (2000) Ketamine-induced deficits in auditory and visual context-dependent processing in healthy volunteers: implications for models of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:1139–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Verma A, Moghaddam B (1997) NMDA receptor antagonists impair prefrontal cortex function as assessed via spatial delayed alternation performance in rats: modulation by dopamine. J Neurosci 16:373–379Google Scholar
  113. Ware LA (1979) Neuropsychological functioning in users and nonusers of phencyclidine. Dissertation abstracts 5126B. South Illinois University, CarbondaleGoogle Scholar
  114. Weingartner HJ, Rawlings R, George DT, Eckardt M (1998) Triazolam-induced changes in alcoholic thought processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 138:311–317Google Scholar
  115. White PF, Way WL, Trevor AJ (1982) Ketamine—its pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Anesthesiology 23:645–653Google Scholar
  116. Wu JC, Buchsbaum MS, Bunney BS (1991) Positron emission tomography study of phencyclidine users as a possible drug model of schizophrenia. Jpn J Psychopharmacol 11:47–48Google Scholar
  117. Zsigmond EK, Domino EF (1980) Clinical pharmacology and current uses of ketamine. In: Aldrite J, Stanley T (eds) Trends in intravenous anesthesia. Yearbook Medical Publishers, Chicago, IL, pp 283–328Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Psychopharmacology Unit, Sub-department of Clinical Health PsychologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations