Psychopharmacology

, Volume 188, Issue 2, pp 201–212

Single-trials analyses demonstrate that increases in clock speed contribute to the methamphetamine-induced horizontal shifts in peak-interval timing functions

  • Matthew S. Matell
  • Melissa Bateson
  • Warren H. Meck
Original Investigation

Abstract

Introduction

Drugs that increase dopamine (DA) transmission have been shown to produce an overestimation of time in duration production procedures as exhibited by horizontal leftward shifts of the psychophysical functions. However, the generality of these results has been inconsistent in the literature.

Materials and methods

The present report evaluates the effects of five doses of methamphetamine (MAP) (0.5–1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) on two duration production procedures, the single duration peak-interval (PI) procedure and the multiduration tri-peak procedure in rats.

Results

We replicated and extended prior results by showing a dose-dependent proportional overestimation of time that was equivalent on both procedures (i.e., subjects behaved as though they expected reinforcement to be available earlier in real time). Single-trials analyses demonstrated that the reduction in peak rate that is often observed after MAP administration is due to an increase in the proportion of trials in which responding occurred at very low rates and without temporal control. However, these low-rate trials were not the source of the leftward shift in the temporal estimates. Rather, we found that the leftward shift of the PI functions was due to proportional changes in the placement of temporally controlled high-rate responding, which is consistent with a DA-mediated alteration in clock speed.

Keywords

Time perception Internal clock Rate-dependence Dopamine agonist 

References

  1. Abner RT, Edwards T, Douglas A, Brunner D (2001) Pharmacology of temporal cognition in two mouse strains. Int J Comp Psychol 14:189–210Google Scholar
  2. Bayley PJ, Bentley GD, Dawson GR (1998) The effects of selected antidepressant drugs on timing behaviour in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 136:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Branch MN (1984) Rate dependency, behavioral mechanisms, and behavioral pharmacology. J Exp Anal Behav 42:511–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brunner D, Kacelnik A, Gibbon J (1992) Optimal foraging and timing processes in the starling sturnus vulgaris: effect of intercapture interval. Anim Behav 44:597–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buhusi CV, Meck WH (2002) Differential effects of methamphetamine and haloperidol on the control of an internal clock. Behav Neurosci 116:291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buhusi CV, Meck WH (2005) What makes us tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. Nat Rev Neurosci 6:755–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buhusi CV, Perera D, Meck WH (2005) Memory for timing visual and auditory signals in albino and pigmented rats. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 31:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cevik MO (2003) Effects of methamphetamine on duration discrimination. Behav Neurosci 117:774–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng K, Westwood R (1993) Analysis of Single Trials in Pigeons Timing Performance. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 19:56–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiang TJ, Al-Ruwaitea AS, Mobini S, Ho MY, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E (2000) The effect of d-amphetamine on performance on two operant timing schedules. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:170–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Church RM (1997) Timing and temporal search. In: Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E (eds) Time and behaviour: psychological and neurobehavioural analyses (advances in psychology). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Church RM, Broadbent HA (1991) A connectionist model of timing. In: Michael L. Commons SGJERS (ed) Neural network models of conditioning and action. Quantitative analyses of behavior series. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 225–240Google Scholar
  13. Church RM, Miller KD, Meck WH, Gibbon J (1991) Symmetrical and asymmetrical sources of variance in temporal generalization. Anim Learn Behav 19:207–214Google Scholar
  14. Church RM, Meck WH, Gibbon J (1994) Application of scalar timing theory to individual trials. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 20:135–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dews PB (1981) History and present status of the rate-dependency investigations. In: Thompson T, Dews PB, Barrett JE (eds) Advances in behavioral pharmacology. Academic, New York, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  16. Drew MR, Fairhurst S, Malapani C, Horvitz JC, Balsam PD (2003) Effects of dopamine antagonists on the timing of two intervals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75:9–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eckerman DA, Segbefia D, Manning S, Breese GS (1987) Effects of methylphenidate and d-amphetamine on timing in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 27:513–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellinwood EH Jr, Balster RL (1974) Rating the behavioral effects of amphetamine. Eur J Pharmacol 28:35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evenden JL, Robbins TW (1983) Increased response switching, perseveration and perseverative switching following d-amphetamine in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 80:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evenden J, Ko T (2005) The psychopharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats VIII: effects of amphetamine, methylphenidate, and other drugs on responding maintained by a fixed consecutive number avoidance schedule. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 180:294–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evenden J, Meyerson B (1999) The behavior of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats under a paced fixed consecutive number schedule of reinforcement. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 63:71–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferster CB, Skinner BF (1957) Schedules of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Frederick DL, Allen JD (1996) Effects of selective dopamine D1- and D2-agonists and antagonists on timing performance in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53:759–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fritts ME, Mueller K, Morris L (1997) Amphetamine-induced locomotor stereotypy in rats is reduced by a D1 but not a D2 antagonist. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 58:1015–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gallistel CR (1990) The organization of learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  26. Gallistel CR, King A, McDonald R (2004) Sources of variability and systematic error in mouse timing behavior. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 30:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibbon J (1977) Scalar expectancy theory and Weber’s Law in animal timing. Psychol Rev 84:279–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gibbon J, Church RM (1990) Representation of time. Cognition 37:23–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gibbon J, Church RM, Meck WH (1984) Scalar timing in memory. Ann N Y Acad Sci 423:52–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuczenski R, Segal DS (1999) Sensitization of amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviors during the acute response. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288:699–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Liao RM, Cheng RK (2005) Acute effects of d-amphetamine on the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) schedule behavior in the rat: comparison with selective dopamine receptor antagonists. Chin J Physiol 48:41–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Maricq AV, Church RM (1983) The differential effects of haloperidol and methamphetamine on time estimation in the rat. Psychopharmacology 79:10–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maricq AV, Roberts S, Church RM (1981) Methamphetamine and time estimation. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 7:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matell MS, Meck WH (2000) Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior. BioEssays 22:94–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matell MS, Meck WH (2004) Cortico-striatal circuits and interval timing: coincidence detection of oscillatory processes. Cogn Brain Res 21:139–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Matell MS, King GR, Meck WH (2004) Differential modulation of clock speed by the administration of intermittent versus continuous cocaine. Behav Neurosci 118:150–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McClure EA, Saulsgiver KA, Wynne CD (2005) Effects of D-amphetamine on temporal discrimination in pigeons. Behav Pharmacol 16:193–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Meck WH (1983) Selective adjustment of the speed of internal clock and memory processes. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 9:171–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meck WH (1986) Affinity for the dopamine D2 receptor predicts neuroleptic potency in decreasing the speed of an internal clock. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25:1185–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meck WH (1996) Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception. Cogn Brain Res 3:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meck WH, Church RM (1987a) Cholinergic modulation of the content of temporal memory. Behav Neurosci 101:457–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Meck WH, Church RM (1987b) Nutrients that modify the speed of internal clock and memory storage processes. Behav Neurosci 101:465–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Meck WH, Church RM, Wenk GL, Olton DS (1987) Nucleus basalis magnocellularis and medial septal area lesions differentially impair temporal memory. J Neurosci 7:3505–3511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Odum AL, Ward RD (2004) The effects of morphine on the production and discrimination of interresponse times. J Exp Anal Behav 82:197–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Odum AL, Lieving LM, Schaal DW (2002) Effects of d-amphetamine in a temporal discrimination procedure: Selective changes in timing or rate dependency? J Exp Anal Behav 78:195–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Paule MG, Meck WH, McMillan DE, Bateson M, Popke EJ, Chelonis JJ, Hinton SC (1999) The use of timing behaviors in animals and humans to detect drug and/or toxicant effects. Neurotoxical Teratol 21:491–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Penney TB, Holder MD, Meck WH (1996) Clonidine-induced antagonism of norepinephrine modulates the attentional processes involved in peak-interval timing. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 4:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Penney TB, Gibbon J, Meck WH (2000) Differential effects of auditory and visual signals on clock speed and temporal memory. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 26:1770–1787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rakitin BC, Gibbon J, Penney TB, Malapani C, Hinton SC, Meck WH (1998) Scalar expectancy theory and peak-interval timing in humans. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 24:15–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roberts S (1981) Isolation of an internal clock. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes 7:242–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Santi A, Weise L, Kuiper D (1995) Amphetamine and memory for event duration in rats and pigeons: disruption of attention to temporal samples rather than changes in the speed of the internal clock. Psychobiology 23:224–232Google Scholar
  52. Schneider BA (1969) A two-state analysis of fixed-interval responding in the pigeon. J Exp Anal Behav 12:677–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Treisman M (1963) Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: implications for a model of the “internal clock.” Psychol Monogr 77:1–31PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew S. Matell
    • 1
  • Melissa Bateson
    • 2
  • Warren H. Meck
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyVillanova UniversityVillanovaUSA
  2. 2.School of Biology and Psychology, Newcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  3. 3.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations