Psychopharmacology

, Volume 188, Issue 4, pp 567–585 | Cite as

Mesocortical dopamine modulation of executive functions: beyond working memory

Review

Abstract

Rationale

Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to play an essential role in mediating executive functions such as the working memory. DA exerts these effects by acting on D1 receptors because blockade or stimulation of these receptors in the PFC can impair performance on delayed response tasks. However, comparatively less is known about dopaminergic mechanisms that mediate other executive functions regulated by the PFC. Furthermore, the functional importance of other DA receptor subtypes that reside on PFC neurons (D2 and D4) is unclear.

Objectives

This review will summarize previous findings and previously unpublished data addressing the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognition. We will compare the DA receptor mechanisms, which regulate executive functions such as working memory, behavioral flexibility, and decision-making.

Results and conclusions

Whereas PFC D1 receptor activity is of primary importance in working memory, D1 and D2 receptors act in a cooperative manner to facilitate behavioral flexibility. We note that the principle of the “inverted U-shaped” function of D1 receptor activity mediating working memory does not necessarily apply to other PFC functions. DA in different subregions of the PFC also mediates decision-making assessed with delay discounting or effort-based procedures, and we report that D1, D2, and D4 receptors in the medial PFC contribute to decision-making when animals must bias the direction of behavior to avoid aversive stimuli, assessed with a conditioned punishment procedure. Thus, mesocortical DA modulation of distinct executive functions is subserved by dissociable profiles of DA receptor activity in the PFC.

Keywords

Prefrontal cortex D2 receptor D4 receptor Set shifting Decision-making Aversive conditioning Schizophrenia 

References

  1. Ainslie G (1975) Specious reward: a behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychol Bull 82:463–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnsten AF (1997) Catecholamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex. J Psychopharmacol 11:151–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnsten AF, Murphy B, Merchant K (2000) The selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonist, PNU-101387G, prevents stress-induced cognitive deficits in monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 23:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aujla H, Beninger RJ (2001) Hippocampal-prefrontocortical circuits: PKA inhibition in the prefrontal cortex impairs delayed nonmatching in the radial maze in rats. Behav Neurosci 115:1204–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer RH, Fuster JM (1978) Effects of d-amphetamine and prefrontal cortical cooling on delayed matching-to-sample behavior. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 8:243–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Anderson SW (1998) Dissociation of working memory from decision making within the human prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 18:428–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR, Lee GP (1999) Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. J Neurosci 19:5473–5481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bechara A, Dolan S, Denburg N, Hindes A, Anderson SW, Nathan PE (2001) Decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia 39:376–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beninger RJ, Wasserman J, Zanibbi K, Charbonneau D, Mangels J, Beninger BV (2003) Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect two nondeclarative memory tasks in schizophrenic patients: a double dissociation. Schizophr Res 61:281–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Birrell JM, Brown VJ (2000) Medial frontal cortex mediates perceptual attentional set shifting in the rat. J Neurosci 20:4320–4324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Broersen LM, Heinsbroek RP, deBruin JPC, Joosten RNJMA, van Hest A, Oliver B (1995) Effects of local application of dopaminergic drugs into the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex of rats in a delayed matching to position task: comparison with cholinergic blockade. Brain Res 645:113–122Google Scholar
  13. Brown VJ, Bowman EM (2002) Rodent models of prefrontal cortical function. Trends Neurosci 25:340–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brozowski TS, Brown RM, Rosvold HE, Goldman PS (1979) Cognitive deficits caused by regional depletion of dopamine in prefrontal cortex of Rhesus monkey. Science 205:929–932Google Scholar
  15. Bubser M, Schmidt WJ (1990) 6-Hydroxydopamine lesion of the rat prefrontal cortex increases locomotor activity, impairs acquisition of delayed alternation tasks, but does not affect uninterrupted tasks in the radial maze. Behav Brain Res 37:157–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cardinal RN, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2000) The effects of d-amphetamine, chlordiazepoxide, alpha-flupentixol and behavioral manipulations on choice of signalled and unsignalled delayed reinforcement in rats. Psychopharmacology 152:362–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cardinal RN, Pennicott DR, Sugathapala CL, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2001) Impulsive choice induced in rats by lesions of the nucleus accumbens core. Science 292:2499–2501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chudasama Y, Robbins TW (2004) Dopaminergic modulation of visual attention and working memory in the rodent prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1628–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark L, Cools R, Robbins TW (2004) The neuropsychology of ventral prefrontal cortex: decision-making and reversal learning. Brain Cogn 55:41–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke HF, Dalley JW, Crofts HS, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2004) Cognitive inflexibility after prefrontal serotonin depletion. Science 304:878–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clarke HF, Walker SC, Crofts HS, Dalley JW, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2005) Prefrontal serotonin depletion affects reversal learning but not attentional set shifting. J Neurosci 25:532–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Collins P, Wilkinson LS, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2000) The effect of dopamine depletion from the caudate nucleus of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) on tests of prefrontal cognitive function. Behav Neurosci 114:3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cousins MS, Wei W, Salamone JD (1994) Pharmacological characterization of performance on a concurrent lever pressing/feeding choice procedure: effects of dopamine antagonist, cholinomimetic, sedative and stimulant drugs. Psychopharmacology 116:529–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Coutureau E, Dix SL, Killcross AS (2000) Involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex-basolateral amygdala pathway in fear related behaviour in rats. Eur J Neurosci 12S:156Google Scholar
  25. Crofts HS, Dalley JW, Collins P, Van Denderen JCM, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (2001) Differential effects of 6-OHDA lesions of the frontal cortex and caudate nucleus on the ability to acquire attentional set. Cereb Cortex 11:1015–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Damasio AR (1994) Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. Grosset/Putnam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Daniel DG, Weinberger DR, Jones DW, Zigun JR, Coppola R, Handel S, Bigelow LB, Goldberg TE, Berman KF, Kleinman JE (1991) The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia. J Neurosci 11:1907–1917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Denk F, Walton ME, Jennings KA, Sharp T, Rushworth MF, Bannerman DM (2005) Differential involvement of serotonin and dopamine systems in cost-benefit decisions about delay or effort. Psychopharmacology 179:587–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dias R, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (1996) Primate analogue of the Wisconsin card sorting test: effects of excitotoxic lesions of the prefrontal cortex in the marmoset. Behav Neurosci 110:872–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dias R, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (1997) Dissociable forms of inhibitory control within prefrontal cortex with an analog of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test: restriction to novel situations and independence from “on-line” processing. J Neurosci 17:9285–9297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Druzin MY, Kurzina NP, Malinina EP, Kozlov AP (2000) The effects of local application of D2 selective dopaminergic drugs into the medial prefrontal cortex of rats in a delayed spatial choice task. Behav Brain Res 109:99–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Egan MF, Goldberg TE, Kolachana BS, Callicott JH, Mazzanti CM, Straub RE, Goldman D, Weinberger DR (2001) Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6917–6922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ernst M, Bolla K, Mouratidis M, Contoreggi C, Matochik JA, Kurian V, Cadet JL, Kimes AS, London ED (2002) Decision-making in a risk-taking task: a PET study. Neuropsychopharmacology 26:682–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ersche KD, Fletcher PC, Lewis SJ, Clark L, Stocks-Gee G, London M, Deakin JB, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ (2005) Abnormal frontal activations related to decision-making in current and former amphetamine and opiate dependent individuals. Psychopharmacology 180:612–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Evenden JL, Ryan CN (1996) The pharmacology of impulsive behaviour in rats: the effects of drugs on response choice with varying delays of reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 128:161–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fellows LK, Farah MJ (2005) Different underlying impairments in decision-making following ventromedial and dorsolateral frontal lobe damage in humans. Cereb Cortex 15:58–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fletcher PJ, Tenn CC, Rizos Z, Lovic V, Kapur S (2005) Sensitization to amphetamine, but not PCP, impairs attentional set shifting: reversal by a D1 receptor agonist injected into the medial prefrontal cortex. Psychopharmacology 183:190–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Floresco SB, Grace AA (2003) Gating of hippocampal-evoked activity in prefrontal cortical neurons by inputs from the mediodorsal thalamus and ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci 23:3930–3943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Floresco SB, Phillips AG (2001) Delay-dependent modulation of memory retrieval by infusion of a dopamine D1 agonist into the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Behav Neurosci 115:934–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Floresco SB, Seamans JK, Phillips AG (1997) Selective roles for hippocampal prefrontal cortical, and ventral striatal circuits in radial-arm maze tasks with or without a delay. J Neurosci 17:1880–1890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Floresco SB, Braaksma, Phillips AG (1999) Thalamic-cortical-striatal circuitry subserves working memory during delayed responding on a radial arm maze. J Neurosci 19: 11061–11071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Floresco SB, Magyar O, Ghods-Sharifi S, Vexelman C, Tse MT (2006) Multiple dopamine receptor subtypes in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat regulate set-shifting. Neuropsychopharmacology 31:297–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Friedman JI, Temporini H, Davis KL (1999) Pharmacologic strategies for augmenting cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 45:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fukui H, Murai T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Hanakawa T (2005) Functional activity related to risk anticipation during performance of the Iowa Gambling Task. Neuroimage 24:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gaspar P, Bloch B, LeMoine C (1995) D1 and D2 receptor gene expression in rat frontal cortex: cellular localization in different classes of efferent neurons. Eur J Neurosci 7:1050–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Granon S, Passetti F, Thomas KL, Dalley JW, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2000) Enhanced and impaired attentional performance after infusion of D1 dopaminergic receptor agents into rat prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 20:1208–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gulledge AT, Jaffe DB (1998) Dopamine decreases the excitability of layer V pyramidal cells in the rat prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 18:9139–9151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gurden H, Tassin J-P, Jay TM (1999) Integrity of the mesocortical dopaminergic system is necessary for complete expression of in vivo hippocampal-prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation. Neuroscience 94:1019–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hutton SB, Murphy FC, Joyce EM, Rogers RD, Cuthbert I, Barnes TR, McKenna PJ, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2002) Decision making deficits in patients with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 55:249–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jay TM, Glowinski J, Thierry AM (1995) Inhibition of hippocampoprefrontal cortex excitatory responses by the mesocortical DA system. Neuroreport 6:1845–1848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jentsch JD, Taylor JR, Redmond DE Jr, Elsworth JD, Youngren KD, Roth RH (1999) Dopamine D4 receptor antagonist reversal of subchronic phencyclidine-induced object retrieval/detour deficits in monkeys. Psychopharmacology 142:78–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kesner RP, Bierley RA, Pebbles P (1981) Short-term memory: the role of d-amphetamine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 15:673–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kheramin S, Body S, Ho MY, Velazquez-Martinez DN, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E, Deakin JF, Anderson IM (2004) Effects of orbital prefrontal cortex dopamine depletion on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis. Psychopharmacology 175:206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Killcross S, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (1997a) Different types of fear-conditioned behaviour mediated by separate nuclei within amygdala. Nature 388:377–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Killcross AS, Everitt BJ, Robins TW (1997b) Symmetrical effects of amphetamine and alpha-flupentixol on conditioned punishment and conditioned reinforcement: contrasts with midazolam. Psychopharmacology 129:141–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Laviolette SR, Lipski WJ, Grace AA (2005) A subpopulation of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex encodes emotional learning with burst and frequency codes through a dopamine D4 receptor-dependent basolateral amygdala input. J Neurosci 25:6066–6075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Levesque D, Diaz J, Pilon C, Martres MP, Giros B, Souil E, Schott D, Morgat JL, Schwartz JC, Sokoloff P (1992) Identification, characterization, and localization of the dopamine D3 receptor in rat brain using 7-[3H]hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:8155–8159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McAlonan K, Brown VJ (2003) Orbital prefrontal cortex mediates reversal learning and not attentional set shifting in the rat. Behav Neurosci 146: 97–103Google Scholar
  59. Manes F, Sahakian B, Clark L, Rogers R, Antoun N, Aitken M, Robbins TW (2002) Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex. Brain 125:624–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mehta MA, Manes FF, Magnolfi G, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (2004) Impaired set-shifting and dissociable effects on tests of spatial working memory following the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride in human volunteers. Psychopharmacology 176:331–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mizumori SJ, Channon V, Rosenzweig MR, Bennett EL (1987) Short- and long-term components of working memory in the rat. Behav Neurosci 101:782–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mobini S, Body S, Ho MY, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E, Deakin JF, Anderson IM (2002) Effects of lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex on sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 160:290–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mrzijak L, Bergson C, Pappy M, Huff R, Levenson R, Goldman-Rakic PS (1996) Localization of dopamine D4 receptors in GABAergic neurons of the primate brain. Nature 381:245–248Google Scholar
  64. Muly EC, Szigeti K, Goldman-Rakic PS (1998) D1 receptor in interneurons of macaque prefrontal cortex: distribution and subcellular localization. J Neurosci 18:10553–10565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Murphy BL, Arnsten AF, Goldman-Rakic PS, Roth RH (1996) Increased dopamine turnover in the prefrontal cortex imapirs spatial working memory performance in rats and monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:1325–1329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Naccache L, Dehaene S, Cohen L, Habert MO, Guichart-Gomez E, Galanaud D, Willer JC (2005) Effortless control: executive attention and conscious feeling of mental effort are dissociable. Neuropsychologia 43:1318–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ongur D, Price JL (2000) The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans. Cereb Cortex 10:206–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Owen AM, Roberts AC, Polkey CE, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (1991) Extra-dimensional versus intra-dimensional set shifting performance following frontal lobe excisions, temporal lobe excisions or amygdalo-hippocampectomy in man. Neuropsychologia 29:993–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Owen AM, Roberts AC, Hodges JR, Summers BA, Polkey CE, Robbins TW (1993) Contrasting mechanisms of impaired attentional set-shifting in patients with frontal lobe damage or Parkinson’s disease. Brain 116:1159–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Packard MG (1999) Dissociations of multiple memory systems by post-training intracerebral injections of glutamate. Psychobiology 127:40–50Google Scholar
  71. Pantelis C, Barber FZ, Barnes TR, Nelson HE, Owen AM, Robbins TW (1999) Comparison of set-shifting ability in patients with chronic schizophrenia and frontal lobe damage. Schizophr Res 37:251–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Phillips AG, Ahn S, Floresco SB (2004) Magnitude of dopamine release in medial prefrontal cortex predicts accuracy of memory on a delayed response task. J Neurosci 24:547–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pirot S, Godbout R, Mantz J, Tassin J-P, Glowinski J, Thierry A–M (1992) Inhibitory effects of ventral tegmental area stimulation on the activity of prefrontal cortical neurons: evidence for involvement of both dopaminergic and GABAergic components. Neuroscience 49:857–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ragozzino ME (2002) The effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade on the prelimbic-infralimbic areas on behavioral flexibility. Learn Mem 9:18–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ragozzino ME, Detrich S, Kesner RP (1999) Involvement of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas of the rodent prefrontal cortex in behavioral flexibility for place and response learning. J Neurosci 19:4585–4594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Reeve WV, Schandler SL (2001) Frontal lobe functioning in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Adolescence 36:749–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Robbins TW (2005) Chemistry of the mind: neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cortical function. J Comp Neurol 493:140–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Roberts AC, De Salvia MA, Wilkinson LS, Collins P, Muir JL, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (1994) 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the prefrontal cortex in monkeys enhance performance on an analog of the Wisconsin card sort test: possible interactions with subcortical dopamine. J Neurosci 14:2531–2544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rogers RD, Robbins TW (2001) Investigating the neurocognitive deficits associated with chronic drug misuse. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11:250–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rogers RD, Everitt BJ, Baldacchino A, Blackshaw AJ, Swainson R, Wynne K, Baker NB, Hunter J, Carthy T, Booker E, London M, Deakin JF, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW (1999) Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:322–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Romanides AJ, Duffy P, Kalivas PW (1999) Glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferents to the prefrontal cortex regulate spatial working memory in rats. Neuroscience 92:97–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sagvolden T, Sergeant JA (1998) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-from brain dysfunctions to behavior. Behav Brain Res 94:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Salamone JD, Cousins MS, Bucher S (1994) Anhedonia or anergia? Effects of haloperidol and nucleus accumbens dopamine depletion on instrumental response selection in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure. Behav Brain Res 65:221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sawaguchi T, Goldman-Rakic PS (1991) D1 dopamine receptors in prefrontal cortex: involvement in working memory. Science 251:947–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sawaguchi T, Goldman-Rakic PS (1994) The role of D1-dopamine receptor in working memory: local injections of dopamine antagonists into the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys performing an oculomotor delayed-response task. J Neurophysiol 71:515–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sawaguchi T, Matsumura M, Kubota K (1988) Dopamine enhances the neuronal activity of spatial short-term memory performance in the primate prefrontal cortex. Neurosci Res 5:465–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Schweimer J, Hauber W (2005) Involvement of the rat anterior cingulate cortex in control of instrumental responses guided by reward expectancy. Learn Mem 12:334–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schweimer J, Saft S, Hauber W (2005) Involvement of catecholamine neurotransmission in the rat anterior cingulate in effort-related decision making. Behav Neurosci 119:1687–1692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Seamans JK, Yang CR (2004) The principal features and mechanisms of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex. Prog Neurobiol 74:1–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Seamans JK, Floresco SB, Phillips AG (1995) Functional differences between the prelimbic and anterior cingulate regions of the rat prefrontal cortex. Behav Neurosci 109:1063–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Seamans JK, Floresco SB, Phillips AG (1998) D1 receptor modulation of hippocampal-prefrontal cortical circuits integrating spatial memory with executive functions in the rat. J Neurosci 18:1613–1621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Seamans JK, Gorelova N, Durstewitz D, Yang CR (2001a) Bidirectional dopamine modulation of GABAergic inhibition in prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 21:3628–3638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Seamans JK, Durstewitz D, Christie B, Stevens CF, Sejnowski TJ (2001b) Dopamine D1/D5 receptor modulation of excitatory synaptic inputs to layer V prefrontal cortex neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Seeman P, Guan HC, Van Tol HH (1993) Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia. Nature 365:441–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Sesack SR, King SW, Bressler CN, Watson SJ, Lewis DA (1995) Electron microscopic visualization of dopamine D2 receptors in the forebrain: cellular, regional, and species comparisons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 21:365Google Scholar
  96. Shah AA, Sjovold T, Treit D (2004) Selective antagonism of medial prefrontal cortex D4 receptors decreases fear-related behavior in rats. Eur J Neurosci 19:3393–3397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Shurman B, Horan WP, Nuechterlein KH (2005) Schizophrenia patients demonstrate a distinctive pattern of decision-making impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task. Schizophr Res 72:215–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Slamecka NJ (1968) A methodological analysis of shift paradigms in human discrimination learning. Psychol Bull 69:423–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Solanto MV (1998) Neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of stimulant drug action in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review and integration. Behav Brain Res 94:127–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Stefani MR, Groth K, Moghaddam B (2003) Glutamate receptors in the rat medial prefrontal cortex regulate set-shifting ability. Behav Neurosci 117:728–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sun W, Rebec GV (2005) The role of prefrontal cortex D1-like and D2-like receptors in cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology 177:315–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tarazi FI, Zhang K, Baldessarini RJ (2004) Dopamine D4 receptors: beyond schizophrenia. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 24:131–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Trantham-Davidson H, Neely LC, Lavin A, Seamans JK (2004) Mechanisms underlying differential D1 versus D2 dopamine receptor regulation of inhibition in prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 24:10652–10659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tseng KY, O’Donnell P (2004) Dopamine-glutamate interactions controlling prefrontal cortical pyramidal cell excitability involve multiple signaling mechanisms. J Neurosci 24:5131–5139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Uylings HB, Groenewegen HJ, Kolb B (2003) Do rats have a prefrontal cortex? Behav Brain Res 146:3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. van Gaalen MM, van Koten R, Schoffelmeer AN, Vanderschuren LJ (2005) Critical involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in impulsive decision making. Biol Psychiatry (in press, Aug 24). DOI 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.005Google Scholar
  107. Vexelman CF, Tse TL, Floresco SB (2005) Stimulation of dopamine D4 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex disrupts working memory during delayed responding on a radial arm maze. Soc Neurosci Abstr (35th annual meeting, program no. 652.2, Washington, DC; http://sfn.scholarone.com/itin2005/main.html?new_page_id=126&abstract_id=18720&p_num=652.2&is_tech=0)
  108. Von Huben SN, Davis SA, Lay CC, Katner SN, Crean RD, Taffe MA (2006) Differential contributions of dopaminergic D(1)- and D(2)-like receptors to cognitive function in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (in press, March 5)Google Scholar
  109. Walton ME, Bannerman DM, Rushworth MF (2002) The role of rat medial frontal cortex in effort-based decision making. J Neurosci 22:10996–11003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Walton ME, Bannerman DM, Alterescu, K, Rushworth MF (2003) Functional specialization within medial frontal cortex of the anterior cingulate for evaluating effort-related decisions. J Neurosci 22:10996–11003Google Scholar
  111. Walton ME, Croxson PL, Rushworth MF, Bannerman DM (2005) The mesocortical dopamine projection to anterior cingulate cortex plays no role in guiding effort-related decisions. Behav Neurosci 119:323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wang J, O’Donnell P (2001) D1 dopamine receptors potentiate NMDA-mediated excitability increase in layer V prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons. Cereb Cortex 11:452–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang X, Zhong P, Gu Z, Yan Z (2003) Regulation of NMDA receptors by dopamine D4 signaling in prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 23:9852–9861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wang M, Vijayraghavan S, Goldman-Rakic PS (2004) Selective D2 receptor actions on the functional circuitry of working memory. Science 303:853–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wedzony K, Chocyk A, Mackowiak M, Fijal K, Czyrak A (2001) Cortical localization of dopamine D4 receptors in the rat brain-immunocytochemical study. J Physiol Pharmacol 51:205–221Google Scholar
  116. Williams GV, Castner SA (2005) Under the curve: critical issues for elucidating D1 receptor function in working memory. Neuroscience 139(1):263–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Williams GV, Goldman-Rakic PS (1995) Modulation of memory fields by dopamine D1 receptors in prefrontal cortex. Nature 376:572–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004) Contrasting roles of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in impulsive choice. J Neurosci 24:4718–4722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Robbins TW (2005) Interactions between serotonin and dopamine in the control of impulsive choice in rats: therapeutic implications for impulse control disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:669–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Winstanley CA, Theobald DE, Dalley JW, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2006) Double dissociation between serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex during a test of impulsive choice. Cereb Cortex 16:106–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Yang CR, Mogenson GJ (1990) Dopaminergic modulation of cholinergic responses in rat medial prefrontal cortex: and electrophysiological study. Brain Res 524:271–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Yang CR, Seamans JK (1996) Dopamine D1 receptor actions in layers V–V1 rat prefrontal cortex neurons in vitro: modulation of dendritic-somatic signal integration. J Neurosci 16:1922–1935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Yang CR, Seamans JK, Gorelova N (1999) Developing a neuronal model for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia based on the nature of electrophysiological actions of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 21:161–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Yang P, Chung LC, Chen CS, Chen CC (2004) Rapid improvement in academic grades following methylphenidate treatment in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 58:37–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zahrt J, Taylor JR, Mathew RG, Arnsten AF (1997) Supranormal stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors in the rodent prefrontal cortex impairs working memory performance. J Neurosci 17:8528–8535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhang K, Grady CJ, Tsapakis EM, Andersen SL, Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ (2004) Regulation of working memory by dopamine D4 receptor in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1648–1655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zuckerman M, Kuhlman DM (2000) Personality and risk-taking: common biosocial factors. J Pers 68:999–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Brain Research CentreUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations