Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV+ marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood
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No studies to date have directly compared the tolerability and efficacy of smoked marijuana and oral dronabinol in HIV+ marijuana smokers.
The aim of this study was to compare dronabinol (0, 10, 20, 30 mg p.o.) and marijuana [0.0, 1.8, 2.8, 3.9% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] in two samples of HIV+ marijuana smokers: those with (n=15) and those without (n=15) a clinically significant loss of muscle mass (<90% body cell mass/height), which is one component of AIDS wasting.
Mood, physical symptoms, self-selected food intake, cardiovascular data, and cognitive task performance were measured before and repeatedly after dronabinol and marijuana administration in eight 7-h sessions. Marijuana and dronabinol were administered in randomized order using a within-subject, staggered, double-dummy design.
As compared to placebo, (1) marijuana (1.8, 2.8, 3.9% THC) and the lower dronabinol doses (10, 20 mg) were well tolerated (e.g., few physical symptoms, significant increases in ratings of “good drug effect”) in both groups of participants; the highest dose of dronabinol (30 mg) was poorly tolerated in a subset of participants; (2) marijuana and dronabinol significantly increased caloric intake in the low bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) group but not in the normal BIA group; and (3) drug effects on cognitive performance were minor.
These data suggest that for experienced marijuana smokers with clinically significant muscle mass loss, both dronabinol (at acute doses at least four to eight times the current recommendation) and marijuana produce substantial and comparable increases in food intake without producing adverse effects.
KeywordsCannabinoids AIDS THC Appetite
We are grateful to Mabel Torres, Stephanie Wexelbaum, Cassidy Cleavinger, Martin McElhiney, Ph.D., Judy Chiu, and Carl Hart, Ph.D., for their excellent assistance in completing this research. We also thank the US National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (DA 09236 and DA12698) for their support and for providing study marijuana.
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