Advertisement

Psychopharmacology

, Volume 185, Issue 4, pp 495–504 | Cite as

Drug expectancy is necessary for stimulus control of human attention, instrumental drug-seeking behaviour and subjective pleasure

  • Lee Hogarth
  • Anthony Dickinson
  • Sam B. Hutton
  • Nieke Elbers
  • Theodora Duka
Original Investigation

Abstract

Background

It has been suggested that drug-paired stimuli (S+) control addictive behaviour by eliciting an explicit mental representation or expectation of drug availability.

Aims

The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis by determining whether the behavioural control exerted by a tobacco-paired S+ in human smokers would depend upon the S+ eliciting an explicit expectation of tobacco.

Design

In each trial, human smokers (n=16) were presented with stimuli for which attention was measured with an eyetracker. Participants then reported their cigarette reward expectancy before performing, or not, an instrumental tobacco-seeking response that was rewarded with cigarette gains if the S+ had been presented or punished with cigarette losses if the S− had been presented. Following training, participants rated the pleasantness of stimuli.

Results

The S+ only brought about conditioned behaviour in an aware group (those who expected the cigarette reward outcome when presented with the S+). This aware group allocated attention to the S+, performed the instrumental tobacco-seeking response selectively in the presence of the S+ and rated the S+ as pleasant. No conditioned behaviour was seen in the unaware group (those who did not expect the cigarette reward outcome in the presence of the S+).

Conclusions

Drug-paired stimuli control selective attention, instrumental drug-seeking behaviour and positive emotional state by eliciting an explicit expectation of drug availability.

Keywords

Conditioning Addiction Smoking Eye tracking 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by a BBSRC research grant #BBS/B/09384/01.

References

  1. Adams CD, Dickinson A (1981) Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation. Q J Exp Psychol 33B:109–122Google Scholar
  2. Bolles RC (1972) Reinforcement, expectancy and learning. Psychol Rev 79:394–409Google Scholar
  3. Brandon TH, Herzog TA, Irvin JE, Gwaltney CJ (2004) Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence: implications for the assessment of tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction 99:51–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Carter BL, Tiffany ST (2001) The cue–availability paradigm: the effects of cigarette availability on cue reactivity in smokers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 9:183–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark RE, Manns JR, Squire LR (2001) Trace and delay eyeblink conditioning: contrasting phenomena of declarative and nondeclarative memory. Psychol Sci 12:304–308Google Scholar
  6. Collins L, Pearce JM (1985) Predictive accuracy and the effects of partial reinforcement on serial autoshaping. J Exp Psychol 11:548–564Google Scholar
  7. Colwill RM, Rescorla RA (1988) Associations between the discriminative stimulus and the reinforcer in instrumental learning. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 14:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawson ME, Grings WW (1968) Comparison of classical conditioning and relational learning. J Exp Psychol 76:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dayan P, Kakade S, Montague PR (2000) Learning and selective attention. Nat Neurosci 3(Suppl):1218–1223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dickinson A (1997) Bolles’s psychological syllogism. In: Bouton M, Fanselow M (eds) Learning, motivation and cognition. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 345–367Google Scholar
  11. Dickinson A (2001) The 28th Bartlett memorial lecture. Causal learning: an associative analysis. Q J Exp Psychol B 54:3–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickinson A, Wood N, Smith JW (2002) Alcohol seeking by rats: action or habit? Q J Exp Psychol B 55:331–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dols M, Willems B, van den Hout M, Bittoun R (2000) Smokers can learn to influence their urge to smoke. Addict Behav 25:103–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Droungas A, Ehrman R, Childress A, O’Brien C (1995) Effects of smoking cues and cigarette availability on craving and smoking behavior. Addict Behav 20:657–673CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Field M, Duka T (2001) Smoking expectancy mediates the conditioned responses to arbitrary smoking cues. Behav Pharmacol 12:183–194Google Scholar
  16. Field M, Mogg K, Bradley BP (2004) Eye movements to smoking-related cues: effects of nicotine deprivation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:116–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Geier A, Mucha RF, Pauli P (2000) Appetitive nature of drug cues confirmed with physiological measures in a model using pictures of smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 150:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grings WW, Schell AM, Carey CA (1973) Verbal control of an autonomic response in a cue reversal situation. J Exp Psychol 99:215–221Google Scholar
  19. Hogarth L, Duka T (2005) Human nicotine conditioning requires explicit contingency knowledge: is addictive behaviour cognitively mediated? Psychopharmacology (Berl):1–14 DOI 10.1007/s00213-005-0150-0Google Scholar
  20. Hogarth L, Dickinson A, Duka T (2003) Discriminative stimuli that control instrumental tobacco-seeking by human smokers also command selective attention. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 168:435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hogarth L, Dickinson A, Duka T (2005) Explicit knowledge of stimulus–outcome contingencies and stimulus control of selective attention and instrumental action in human smoking behaviour. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 177:428–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holland PC (2004) Relations between Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and reinforcer devaluation. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 30:104–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hutcheson DM, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW, Dickinson A (2001) The role of withdrawal in heroin addiction: enhances reward or promotes avoidance? Nat Neurosci 4:943–947CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Juliano LM, Brandon TH (1998) Reactivity to instructed smoking availability and environmental cues: evidence with urge and reaction time. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6:45–53Google Scholar
  25. Kaye H, Pearce JM (1984) The strength of the orienting response during Pavlovian conditioning. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 10:90–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lazev A, Herzog T, Brandon T (1999) Classical conditioning of environmental cues to cigarette smoking. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7:56–63Google Scholar
  27. Lieberman DA, Connell GL, Moos HF (1998a) Reinforcement without awareness: II. Word class. Q J Exp Psychol B 51:317–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lieberman DA, Sunnucks WL, Kirk JD (1998b) Reinforcement without awareness: I. Voice level. Q J Exp Psychol B 51:301–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lovibond PF (2003) Causal beliefs and conditioned responses: retrospective revaluation induced by experience and by instruction. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 29:97–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lovibond PF (2004) Cognitive processes in extinction. Learn Mem 11:495–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lovibond PF, Shanks DR (2002) The role of awareness in Pavlovian conditioning: empirical evidence and theoretical implications. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28:3–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lovibond PF, Davis NR, O’Flaherty AS (2000) Protection from extinction in human fear conditioning. Behav Res Ther 38:967–983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mackintosh NJ (1974) The psychology of animal learning. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Miles FJ, Everitt BJ, Dickinson A (2003) Oral cocaine seeking by rats: action or habit? Behav Neurosci 117:927–938CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mogg K, Bradley BP, Field M, De Houwer J (2003) Eye movements to smoking-related pictures in smokers: relationship between attentional biases and implicit and explicit measures of stimulus valence. Addiction 98:825–836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Olmstead MC, Lafond MV, Everitt BJ, Dickinson A (2001) Cocaine-seeking by rats is a goal directed action. Behav Neurosci 115:394–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Orain-Pelissolo S, Grillon C, Perez-Diaz F, Jouvent R (2004) Lack of startle modulation by smoking cues in smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Palfai TP (2002) Positive outcome expectancies and smoking behaviour: the role of expectancy accessibility. Cogn Ther Res 26:317–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pearce JM, Hall G (1980) A model for Pavlovian learning: variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not unconditioned stimuli. Psychol Rev 87:532–552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Perruchet P (1985) A pitfall for the expectancy theory of human eyelid conditioning. Pavlov J Biol Sci 20:163–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Robinson TE, Berridge KC (1993) The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of drug addiction. Brain Res Rev 18:247–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Sayette MA, Wertz JM, Martin CS, Cohn JF, Perrott MA, Hobel J (2003) Effects of smoking opportunity on cue-elicited urge: a facial coding analysis. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 11:218–227Google Scholar
  43. Seligman MEP, Johnston JC (1973) A cognitive theory of avoidance learning. In: McGuigan FJ, Lumsden DB (eds) Contemporary approaches to conditioning and learning. V. H. Winston, Washington, DC, pp 69–110Google Scholar
  44. Siegel S (1989) Pharmacological conditioning and drug effects. In: Goudie A, Emmett-Oglesby M (eds) Psychoactive drugs. Tolerance and sensitisation. Humana, Clifton, pp 115–180Google Scholar
  45. Smith CN, Clark RE, Manns JR, Squire LR (2005) Acquisition of differential delay eyeblink classical conditioning is independent of awareness. Behav Neurosci 119:78–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Solomon RL, Corbit JD (1974) An opponent–process theory of motivation: I. Temporal dynamics of affect. Psychol Rev 81:119–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Stewart J, de Wit H, Eikelboom R (1984) Role of conditioned and unconditioned drug effects in self-administration of opiates and stimulants. Psychol Rev 63:251–268Google Scholar
  48. Tiffany ST (1995) Potential functions of classical conditioning in drug addiction. In: Drummond DC, Tiffany ST, Glautier S, Remington B (eds) Addictive behaviour: cue exposure theory and practice. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Weisman RG, Litner JS (1972) The role of Pavlovian events in avoidance training. In: Boakes RA, Halliday MS (eds) Inhibition and learning. Academic, London, pp 253–270Google Scholar
  50. Wertz JM, Sayette MA (2001a) Effects of smoking opportunity on attentional bias in smokers. Psychol Addict Behav 15:268–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wertz JM, Sayette MA (2001b) A review of the effects of perceived drug use opportunity of self-reported urge. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 9:3–13Google Scholar
  52. Wilson SJ, Sayette MA, Fiez JA (2004) Prefrontal responses to drug cues: a neurocognitive analysis. Nat Neurosci 7:211–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Yu AJ, Dayan P (2005) Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention. Neuron 46:681–692CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee Hogarth
    • 1
  • Anthony Dickinson
    • 2
  • Sam B. Hutton
    • 1
  • Nieke Elbers
    • 1
  • Theodora Duka
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, School of Life SciencesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.Department of Experimental PsychologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations