Population pharmacokinetic analysis of drug–drug interactions among risperidone, bupropion, and sertraline in CF1 mice
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Accumulating evidence indicates that modulation of the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is responsible for many drug–drug interactions.
The potential interaction of risperidone (RISP), which is metabolized by 2D6 and transported across the blood brain barrier (BBB) by P-gp, was studied in combination with bupropion (BUP) and also with sertraline (SERT).
BUP, SERT, and RISP were administered intraperitoneally into CF1 mice at doses of 100, 10, and 1 μg/g mouse, respectively. Plasma and brain samples were collected at timed intervals from 0.5 to 6 h. A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using both traditional compartmental modeling and a population pharmacokinetic approach.
BUP increased the RISP plasma (5.9-fold, P<0.01) and brain (2.2-fold, P<0.01) area under the drug concentration vs time curve (AUC), but did not alter the brain-to-plasma concentration ratio. SERT did not significantly change the plasma AUC of RISP and 9-hydroxy-RISP, but increased the brain AUC of RISP and 9-hydroxy-RISP 1.5-fold (P<0.05) and 5-fold (P<0.01), respectively. RISP did not produce significant alterations of plasma or brain concentrations of BUP. It increased the plasma AUC and elimination half-life (T1/2e) of desmethyl-SERT 12.5-fold (P<0.01) and 107-fold (P<0.01), respectively.
These results suggest that pharmacokinetic interactions exist among these three psychoactive drugs involving inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or P-gp and other drug transporters present in the BBB. The mechanisms and consequences of these interactions require further study in humans to establish clinical relevance.