Anxiogenic effect of sleep deprivation in the elevated plus-maze test in mice
- 463 Downloads
Several clinical studies demonstrate that the absence of periods of sleep is closely related to occurrence of anxiety symptoms. However, the basis of these interactions is poorly understood. Studies performed with animal models of sleep deprivation and anxiety would be helpful in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relationship, but some animal studies have not corroborated clinical data, reporting anxiolytic effects of sleep deprivation.
The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of different protocols of sleep deprivation in mice tested in the elevated plus-maze and to assess the effect of chlordiazepoxide and clonidine.
Three-month-old male mice were sleep-deprived for 24 or 72 h using the methods of single or multiple platforms in water tanks. Mice kept in their home cages were used as controls. Plus-maze behavior was observed immediately after the deprivation period.
Mice that were sleep-deprived for 72 h spent a lower percent time in the open arms of the apparatus than control animals. This sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior was unaffected by treatment with chlordiazepoxide (5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg IP), but reversed by an administration of 5 or 10 μg/kg IP clonidine.
The results indicate that under specific methodological conditions sleep deprivation causes an increase in anxiety-like behavior in mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze.
KeywordsSleep deprivation Anxiety Animal model Chlordiazepoxide Clonidine
- American Psychiatry Association (1994) Diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. APA, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Coenen AML, Van Hulzen ZJM (1980) Paradoxical sleep deprivation in animal studies: some methodological considerations. In: McConnell, Boer GJ, Romjin HJ, Van de Poss NE, Corner MA (eds) Adaptive capabilities of the nervous system (Progress in Brain Research, vol 53). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 325–330Google Scholar
- Frussa-Filho R, Barbosa-Júnior H, Silva RH, Cunha C, Mello CF (1999) Naltrexone potentiates the anxiolytic effect of chlordiazepoxide in rats exposed to novel environments. Psychopharmacology 147:168–173Google Scholar
- Jouvet D, Vimont P, Delorme F, Jouvet M (1964) Etude de la privation sélective de la phase paradoxale de sommeil chez le chat. C R Soc Biol (Paris) 158:756–759Google Scholar
- Lourenzi VPM, Gabriel A Jr, Nunes G Jr, Atra E, Tufik S (1993) REM sleep deprivation and social isolation accelerate autoimmune disease in mice. Sleep Res 22:338Google Scholar
- Mendelson WB, Guthrie RD, Frederick G, Wyatt RJ (1974) The flower pot technique of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2:553–556Google Scholar
- Nunes GP, Tufik S (1994) Validation of the modified multiple platform method (MMP) of paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats. Sleep Res 22:339Google Scholar
- Roy-Byrne PP, Uhde TW, Post RM (1986) Effects of one night’s sleep deprivation on mood and behavior in panic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 43:895–899Google Scholar
- Silva RH, Abílio VC, Takatsu AL, Kameda SR, Grassl C, Chehin AB, Medrano WA, Calzavara MB, Registro S, Andersen ML, Machado RB, Carvalho RC, Ribeiro R de A, Tufik S, Frussa-Filho R (2004) Role of hippocampal oxidative stress in memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation in mice. Neuropharmacology 46:895–903CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Timo-Iaria C, Negrão N, Schmidek WR, Rocha TL, Hoshino K (1970) Phases and states of sleep in the rat. Physiol Behav 5:402–407Google Scholar