Acute effects of a short bout of moderate versus light intensity exercise versus inactivity on tobacco withdrawal symptoms in sedentary smokers
- 372 Downloads
A previous study found that a 10-min bout of moderate intensity exercise reduced cigarette withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in sedentary smokers but the effect may have been due to participants focusing attention on physical activity rather than the activity itself.
This study examined the effect of 5 min of moderate intensity exercise and 5 min of light intensity exercise on tobacco withdrawal symptoms amongst sedentary smokers.
Eighty-four smokers attended a laboratory session having abstained from smoking for between 11 and 14 h. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: (i) light intensity exercise [n=28; 10–20% of heart rate reserve (HRR)]; (ii) moderate intensity exercise (n=28; 40–60% HRR), (iii) a passive control condition (n=28). Both exercise conditions involved 5 min of stationary cycling and participants rated tobacco withdrawal symptoms and cravings immediately before exercise (baseline), during exercise at 2.5 min, immediately following exercise, then after 5 and 10 min of rest. Control participants made the same ratings across an equivalent time period.
For moderate intensity exercise compared to light intensity exercise and control there was a significant reduction in strength of desire to smoke, relative to baseline, both during exercise and up to 5 min post-exercise. Relative to baseline, there were also significant reductions in restlessness, stress, tension and poor concentration at 5 and 10 min post-exercise, for moderate intensity exercise compared to light intensity exercise and control.
Five minutes of moderate intensity exercise is associated with a short-term reduction in desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Very brief bouts of exercise may therefore be useful as an aid to smoking cessation.
KeywordsSmoking cessation Intensity Exercise Withdrawal
- Bock B, Marcus B, King T, Borelli B. Roberts M (1999) Exercise effects on withdrawal and mood among women attempting smoking cessation. Addict Behav 24:399–410Google Scholar
- Borg GAV (1998) Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill.Google Scholar
- Department of Health Statistics Bulletin (2000) Statistics on smoking: England, 1978 onwards. Crown, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Franklin BA (ed) (2000) American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 6th edn. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Grove J, Wilkinson A, Dawson, B (1993) Effects of exercise on selected correlates of smoking withdrawal. Int J Sport Psychol 24:217–236Google Scholar
- Karvonen MJ, Kentala E, Mustala O (1957) The effects of training on heart rate: a longitudinal study. Ann Med Exp Biol 35:305Google Scholar
- McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) Profiles of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego, Calif.Google Scholar
- Morgan W (1997) Physical activity and mental health. Taylor & Francis, BristolGoogle Scholar
- Silagy C, Mant D, Fowler G, Lodge M (2001) Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library 2. Update Software, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Ussher MH, West R, Taylor AH, McEwan A (2000) Exercise interventions in smoking cessation. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library, 4. Update software, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Ussher MH, Hibbs N, West R (2004) A survey of pregnant smokers’ interest in different types of smoking cessation support. Patient Education and Counselling (in press)Google Scholar
- Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A (1988) Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J Person Soc Psychol 54:1063–1070Google Scholar
- West R, Russell M (1985) Pre-abstinence smoke intake and smoking motivation as predictors of severity of cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology 87:407–415Google Scholar
- West R, McEwen A, Bolling K (1999) Smoking cessation and harm minimisation strategies in the general population. Health Education Authority, LondonGoogle Scholar