, Volume 171, Issue 2, pp 229–230 | Cite as

Response to: Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Heffernan TM, Scholey A, Ling J, Rodgers J (2003) Parkinson’s disorder, psychomotor problems and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users. Psychopharmacology 167(4):449–450

  • H. R. SumnallEmail author
  • L. Jerome
  • R. Doblin
  • M. C. Mithoefer

To the Editors; In their recent letter, Parrott and colleagues discussed the human implications of findings of dopaminergic neurotoxicity in non-human primates after repeated doses of MDMA (three injections of 2 mg/kg within 6 h) (Ricaurte et al. 2002). Parrott and colleagues are concerned that like the known neurotoxin MPTP, MDMA might only produce observable effects in a minority of ecstasy users. They supported their concerns by citing a survey conducted over the internet that yielded reports of tremors and twitches in 20% of 282 ecstasy users. However, scientists disagree on the human implications of Ricaurte’s findings, and an examination of the literature fails to support a link between ecstasy use and dopaminergic neurotoxicity or motor problems (Holden 2002).

The MDMA dose regimen used by Ricaurte and colleagues produced 20% mortality in their animals, a figure that far exceeds the estimated percentage of deaths in ecstasy users (Gore 1999; Gill et al. 2003; Henry and Rella 2001...


MPTP Ecstasy MDMA Ecstasy User Motor Problem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. R. Sumnall
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Jerome
    • 2
  • R. Doblin
    • 2
  • M. C. Mithoefer
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Public HealthLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic StudiesSarasotaUSA
  3. 3.Mt. PleasantUSA

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